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Pazuzu Demon Iraq ca. 800-600 B.C.

Baphomet: Demon character supposedly worshiped by the Knights Templar in 14th century France. Some present day practicioners of the black arts regard Baphomet as a "god" of lust and regeneration, or as symbolic of the Devil.
See also: Sigil of Baphomet


The wind demon Pazuzu is often depicted as a combination of animal and human parts. He has the body of a man, the head of a lion or dog, eagle-like taloned feet, two pairs of wings, a scorpion's tail, and a serpentine penis. He is often depicted with his right hand pointing upward and his left hand downward. The position of the hands means respectively life and death (or creation and destruction). Pazuzu, the demon in the 1973 film The Exorcist -- At the beginning of the book and film The Exorcist, when Father Merrin is at the site of an archaelogical dig in Northern Iraq, the menacing sculpted figure is Pazuzu, whom he had battled in an exorcism several years earlier.

Amulet of the demon Pazuzu Start of the 1st millennium BCE Bronze, height: 15 cm, width 8,60 cm, depth 5,60 cm.

Inscription au dos : "Je suis Pazuzu, fils de Hanpa. Le roi des mauvais esprits des vents qui sort violemment des montagnes en faisant rage, c'est moi. Acquisition 1872

Musée du Louvre Département des Antiquités orientales MNB 467

Richelieu Rez-de-chaussée Mésopotamie - Syrie du Nord. Assyrie : Til Barsip, Arslan Tash, Nimrud, Ninive Salle 6, Vitrine 4

To read more on The Demon Pazuzu visit here now.

In the 19th century, the name of Baphomet became associated with occult. In 1854, Eliphas Levi published Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie ("Dogmas and Rituals of High Magic"), in which he included an image he had drawn himself which he described as Baphomet and "The Sabbatic Goat", showing a winged humanoid goat with a pair of breasts and a torch on its head between its horns (illustration, top). This image has become the best-known representation of Baphomet. Levi's depiction is similar to that of the Devil in the Tarot, but it may also have been partly inspired by grotesque carvings on the Templar churches of Lanleff in Brittany and St. Merri in Paris, which depict squatting bearded men with bat wings, female breasts, horns and the shaggy hindquarters of a beast. Some modern video documentaries have added to the confusion by anachronistically including Levi's image or sometimes even a three-dimensional sculpture based on the image, in scenes where they are attempting to portray the history of the Knights Templar.

Lévi considered the Baphomet to be a depiction of the absolute in symbolic form and explicated in detail his symbolism in the drawing that served as the frontispiece:

"The goat on the frontispiece carries the sign of the pentagram on the forehead, with one point at the top, a symbol of light, his two hands forming the sign of hermetism, the one pointing up to the white moon of Chesed, the other pointing down to the black one of Geburah. This sign expresses the perfect harmony of mercy with justice. His one arm is female, the other male like the ones of the androgyn of Khunrath, the attributes of which we had to unite with those of our goat because he is one and the same symbol. The flame of intelligence shining between his horns is the magic light of the universal balance, the image of the soul elevated above matter, as the flame, whilst being tied to matter, shines above it. The beast's head expresses the horror of the sinner, whose materially acting, solely responsible part has to bear the punishment exclusively; because the soul is insensitive according to its nature and can only suffer when it materializes. The rod standing instead of genitals symbolizes eternal life, the body covered with scales the water, the semi- circle above it the atmosphere, the feathers following above the volatile. Humanity is represented by the two breasts and the androgyn arms of this sphinx of the occult sciences."

Levi called his image “the Baphomet of Mendes”, presumably following Herodotus' account that the god of Mendes — the Greek name for Djedet, Egypt — was depicted with a goat's face and legs. Herodotus relates how all male goats were held in great reverence by the Mendesians, and how in his time a woman publicly copulated with a goat. However the deity that was venerated at Egyptian Mendes was actually a ram deity Banebdjed (literally Ba of the lord of djed, and titled "the Lord of Mendes"), who was the soul of Osiris. Levi combined the images of the Tarot of Marseilles Devil card and refigured the ram Banebdjed as a he-goat, further imagined by him as "copulator in Anep and inseminator in the district of Mendes".

Criticism of Levi's interpretation

Egyptian connections aside, Lévi's depiction, for all its modern fame, does not match the historical descriptions from the Templar trials, although it is akin to some grotesques found on Templar churches, having the same horns and beard, female breasts, bat-like wings and hind-quarters of an animal, and being seated on a globe in a similar posture.

Critics argue that Lévi and other writers, such as Albert Pike, were attempting to use the false accusations against the Templars to fabricate from the name Baphomet a veritable Deity of Hedonism and Rebellion against a Christian establishment. Levi's now-familiar image shown here as a "Sabbatic Goat" shows parallels with works by the Spanish artist Francisco Goya, who more than once painted a "Witch's Sabbath"; in the version ca 1821-23, El gran cabrón now at the Prado, a group of seated women offer their dead infant children to a seated goat. Levi also incorrectly identified Baphomet with Herodotus' mistaken "Goat of Mendes".

Aleister Crowley's further fanciful connections linked the ram-god of Mendes with the syncretic Ptolemaic-Roman Harpocrates, a version elaborated upon the child-form of the Egyptian god Horus. Harpocrates was a granter of fertility, but he was not associated with debauch or lust -- and, most important, in animal-form, he was a ram, not a buck goat.

The Baphomet of Lévi was to become an important figure within the cosmology of Thelema, the mystical system established by Crowley in the early twentieth century. Crowley identified Baphomet with Harpocrates and also with what he called the Lion-Serpent. Crowley agreed that Baphomet was a divine androgyne, while also being bi-sexual (as Crowley was) and "the hieroglyph of arcane perfection". In The Law is for All Crowley identifies the Lion-Serpent with one's "Secret Self", which he also called the Holy Guardian Angel.

In Magick (Book 4), Crowley writes, "The devil is this serpent, Satan. He is life and love. He is light, and his zodiacal image is Capricornus, the 'leaping goat,' 'the god head.'"

For Crowley, Baphomet is further a representative of the spiritual nature of the spermatozoa while also being symbolic of the "magical child" produced as a result of sex magic. As such, Baphomet represents the Union of Opposites, especially as mystically personified in Chaos and Babalon combined and biologically manifested with the sperm and egg united in the zygote.
Promotional poster for Léo Taxil, Les Mystères de la franc-maçonnerie dévoilés (1886), adapts Lévi's invention
Promotional poster for Léo Taxil, Les Mystères de la franc-maçonnerie dévoilés (1886), adapts Lévi's invention

But Crowley saw Baphomet as more than the Union of Opposites—-he is also the Lust that leads to such Union. Baphomet is depicted in Crowley's Thoth Tarot deck, in the card "Devil" (Atu XV). Here, he is identified with the Greek god Pan, the All-Begetter. He is "creative energy in its most material form , the goat leaping with lust upon the summits of earth, the divine madness of spring"

Crowley, who was known as "The Beast," also identified himself with Baphomet. In The Equinox of the Gods he describes another card from the Tarot, this time "Lust" (Atu XI), "It shows the Scarlet Woman, BABALON, riding (or conjoined with) me The Beast ; and this card is my special card, for I am Baphomet, 'the Lion and the Serpent,' and 666, the 'full number' of the Sun" It is perhaps for this reason that Crowley assumed the magical name of Baphomet when he was risen to the X° within Ordo Templi Orientis.

Throughout history, many cultures have regarded left-handedness as evil. This tendency can be seen in the etymology of words such as sinister, which in Latin means both "left" and "unlucky." Consequently, the left hand has often symbolized the rejection of traditional religion.

The word "right" as in "right-hand" generally derives from the Hebrew term yamin from the Old Testament, meaning "stronger" and "more dexterous". In Hebrew, the term for "left" is sem'ol, meaning "dark".

It is possible that this division also derives from the practice of using the left hand for purposes of personal hygiene after defecation in some cultures, rendering the left hand "unclean."

Baphomet, as Lévi's illustration suggests, has occasionally been portrayed as a synonym of Satan or a demon, a member of the hierarchy of Hell. Baphomet appears in that guise as a character in James Blish's The Day After Judgment. Christian evangelist Jack Chick claims that Baphomet is a demon worshipped by Freemasons, a claim that apparently originated with the Taxil hoax Léo Taxil's elaborate hoax employed a version of Lévi's Baphomet on the cover of Les Mystères de la franc-maçonnerie dévoilés, his lurid paperback "exposé" of Freemasonry, which in 1897 he revealed as a hoax satirizing ultra-Catholic anti-Masonic propaganda. Lévi's Baphomet is clearly the source as well of the later Tarot image of the Devil, in the Rider-Waite design. The downward-pointing pentagram on its forehead is enlarged upon by Lévi in his illustration of a goat's head arranged within such a pentagram, which he contrasts with the microcosmic man arranged within a similar but upright pentagram.

The symbol of the goat in the downward-pointed pentagram was adopted as the official symbol—called the Sigil of Baphomet—of the Church of Satan, and continues to be used amongst Satanists.

ALSO SEE: Demonology ... AND The Lesser Key of Solomon

Ken is a Demonologist, Spiritual Warfare Counselor, and Catholic faith adviser, as he has over 28 years of research / experience on the topics, with his first experience occurring when he was about seven years old. He is near completion of his book: ”The realm of the Demonic”: A comprehensive guide to the Demonic haunt”, which should be in print by 2009. And will begin a producing an educational documentary as a companion to his book, after the book is completed.


Also See: 20 Questions with Ken Deel here now.

(17 more questions for Demonologist Kenneth Deel)


Ken is a Demonologist, Spiritual Warfare Counselor, and Catholic faith adviser, as he has over 28 years of research / experience on the topics, with his first experience occurring when he was about seven years old. He is near completion of his book: ”The realm of the Demonic”: A comprehensive guide to the Demonic haunt”, which should be in print by 2009. And will begin a producing an educational documentary as a companion to his book, after the book is completed.


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The Baphomet, adopted symbol of some "Left-Hand Path".

The name Baphomet traces back to the end of the Crusades, when the medieval order of the Knights Templar was suppressed by King Philip IV of France. On Friday, October 13, 1307, King Philip had many French Templars simultaneously arrested, and then tortured into confessions. The name Baphomet comes up in several of these confessions, in reference to an idol of some type that the Templars were said to have been worshipping. The description of the object changed from confession to confession. Some Templars denied any knowledge of it. Others, under torture, described it as being either a severed head, a cat, or a head with three faces.

The charge was notable because it was different from usual forced confessions. Over 100 different charges had been leveled against the Templars, most of them clearly false, as they were the same charges that were leveled against other of King Philip's enemies. For example, he had earlier kidnapped Pope Boniface VIII and charged him with near identical offenses of heresy, spitting and urinating on the cross, and sodomy. However, the charges about the worship of an idol named Baphomet, were unique to the Inquisition of the Templars.

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the name's first appearance in English was in Henry Hallam's 1818 work Middle Ages, reproducing an early French corruption of "Mahomet", a common variant of Arabic Muhammad. The name Baphomet also appeared in the English translation of the Viennese Orientalist Joseph Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall's Mysterium Baphometis revelatum as The Mystery of Baphomet Revealed,[ which presented an elaborate pseudohistory constructed to discredit the Freemasons by linking them with "Templar masons". He argued, using archaeological evidence faked by earlier scholars and literary evidence such as the Grail romances, that the Templars were Gnostics and the 'Templars' head' was a Gnostic idol called Baphomet. He did not realise that Gnostics did not have idols.

Some modern scholars such as Peter Partner and Malcolm Barber agree that the name of Baphomet was an Old French corruption of the name Muhammad, with the interpretation being that some of the Templars, through their long military occupation of the Outremer, had begun incorporating Islamic ideas into their belief system, and that this was seen and documented by the Inquisitors as heresy. Peter Partner's 1987 book The Knights Templar and their Myth says, "In the trial of the Templars one of their main charges was their supposed worship of a heathen idol-head known as a 'Baphomet' ('Baphomet' = Mahomet = Muhammad)." Partner's book also provides a quote from a poem written in a Provencal dialect by a troubadour who is thought to have been a Templar. The poem is in reference to some battles in 1265 that were not going well for the Crusaders: "And daily they impose new defeats on us: for God, who used to watch on our behalf, is now asleep, and Muhammad [Bafometz] puts forth his power to support the Sultan.

The use of this poem to prove that "Baphomet" or "Bafometz" was an early French corruption of "Mahomet" ("Muhammad") is critiqued as being circular in a 1995 article published by Kevin Bold ("A History and Mythos of the Knights Templar"). Instead Bold supports Idries Shah's proposal that "Baphomet" derives from the Arabic construction Abufihamat, meaning "Father of Understanding"

For now I tend to favor the Arabic origins over the Old French for the following reasons: first, as an iconoclastic religion, Islam strictly forbids images, either painted or sculpted, of either God or Muhammad, so the idea of even unorthodox Muslims worshipping an idol is simply ludicrous. Second, of those authors I have read who claim that "any expert on Old French" will say that Baphomet was another name for Muhammad never actually cite any such Old French experts to document this assertion. One such writer was Peter Partner, who even found a French troubadour ballad from the late thirteenth century and published an English translation, showing parenthetically that "Bafometz" had appeared in the original French (he had rendered it as "Mohammed" as if this had somehow proved his point).

Throughout history, many cultures have regarded left-handedness as evil. This tendency can be seen in the etymology of words such as sinister, which in Latin means both "left" and "unlucky." Consequently, the left hand has often symbolized the rejection of traditional religion.

The Sigil of Baphomet is the official insignia for the Church of Satan, chosen by Anton Szandor LaVey. Satanists who follow the philosophies of LaVey often adorn themselves with the sigil.

Although versions of the Sigil of Baphomet appear as early as the 1897 book “La Clef de la Magie Noire” by Stanislas de Guaita, the variant in common use today was designed for use by the Church of Satan, and is known as the Hell's Kitchen Baphomet. This variant is copyrighted by the Church of Satan and cannot legally be reproduced without permission. Historic variants are in the public domain.

In an interview with Wikinews, High Priest Peter H. Gilmore described the meaning of the symbol:
“ The goat face represents carnality. In ancient Egypt goats were considered representations as god symbols of lust, and we think lust is an important factor of biology that keeps humanity going so we value that. The five-pointed star really comes from the Pythagoreans. That is the one figure in which every element is within the golden mean of each other. It’s this wonderful mathematical symbol of perfection, organic perfection specifically. Since we are organic life and enjoy the idea of perfecting ourselves, that star is right for us in there and it perfectly fits the goat head inside. Now around it are two circles, one at the tip of the points of the star and one outside. In that are Hebrew characters starting at the bottom and going counter-clockwise spelling Leviathan. In Hebrew mythology, Leviathan was the great dragon of the abyss, this powerful Earth figure that even Yahweh was afraid of. So all these things taken together creates a symbol that Anton LaVey identified with Satanism specifically. When he started the Church of Satan, usually upside down crosses were considered Satanic, and he saw that these different elements and felt this was a positive symbol you could tie to the Satanism he was creating.

The Horned God is a modern syncretic term used amongst Wiccan-influenced Neopagans, which unites numerous male nature gods out of such widely-dispersed mythologies as the Celtic Cernunnos, the English Herne the Hunter, the Hindu Pashupati and the Greek Pan.

A number of figures from British folklore, though normally depicted without horns, are nonetheless considered related: Puck, Robin Goodfellow and the Green Man.

In the religion of Wicca, first publicised in 1954, the Horned God is revered as the partner and/or child of the Goddess (commonly described as the Great Mother or the Triple Goddess). According to Gerald Gardner Wicca is a modern survival of an ancient pan-European pagan religion that was driven underground during the witch trials. As such the Goddess and Horned God (the "Lady" and "Lord") of Wicca are the supposed ancient tribal gods of this faith.


The Devil Baby  of New Orleans



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