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Brad and Sherry Steiger

Please Visit his Official Web Site ~ edwardshanahan.com

Conscious Channeler Edward Shanahan








Including Ghost Hunting Tools And Paranormal Slang

"Paranormal terms and definitions"

By Lisa Lee Harp Waugh

Words often change in meanings. Especially paranormal or ghost hunting terms. Since so many people chase ghosts and hunt for real spooks today, to many really don't know the words to descibe what they experience.

Many well known investigators hand out a paranormal glossary for their clients to look over before or during an interview. This way the client understand you, and you understand them as far as fancy supernatural terms or concerned.

A glossary is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms. Traditionally, a glossary appears at the end of a book and includes terms within that book which are either newly introduced or at least uncommon.

In a general sense, a real paranormal glossary contains explanations of concepts relevant to the field of paranormal study or actions and beings. In this sense, the term is contemporaneously related to ontology.

Ontology (from the Greek ὄν, genitive ὄντος: of being (neuter participle of εἶναι: to be) and -λογία, -logia: science, study, theory) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence or reality in general, as well as of the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences.

Metaphysics investigates principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. Cosmology and ontology are traditional branches of metaphysics. It is concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world. Someone who studies metaphysics would be called either a "metaphysician" or a "metaphysicist".

The word derives from the Greek words μετά (metá) (meaning "beyond" or "after") and φυσικά (physiká) (meaning "physical"), "physical" referring to those works on matter by Aristotle in antiquity. The prefix meta- ("beyond") was attached to the chapters in Aristotle's work that physically followed after the chapters on "physics", in posthumously edited collections. Aristotle himself did not call these works Metaphysics. Aristotle called some of the subjects treated there "first philosophy".

A central branch of metaphysics is ontology, the investigation into what types of things there are in the world and what relations these things bear to one another. The metaphysician also attempts to clarify the notions by which people understand the world, including existence, objecthood, property, space, time, causality, and possibility.

Before the development of modern science, scientific questions were addressed as a part of metaphysics known as "natural philosophy"; the term "science" itself meant "knowledge" of epistemological origin. The scientific method, however, made natural philosophy an empirical and experimental activity unlike the rest of philosophy, and by the end of the eighteenth century it had begun to be called "science" in order to distinguish it from philosophy. Thereafter, metaphysics became the philosophical enquiry of a non-empirical character into the nature of existence.

Types of paranormal investigators and ghost hunting groups

Individuals engaged in ghost hunting and paranormal investigation have varying motives for their activities.

Some ghost hunters consider themselves hobbyists whose primary motivation is the excitement of the hunt and the thrill of possibly experiencing something supernatural. Many of these individuals enjoy spending significant time pursuing their hobby.

Others consider themselves serious researchers who follow a number of scientific protocols and share documentation of their research with other groups in an effort to discover proof that ghosts exist. They often go about their pursuit in a prescribed manner in order to gather evidence of paranormal activity at a given location, or debunk "false positive" reports of hauntings. Many established groups fall into this category.
Still others consider themselves to be providing a service, and focus their investigation on offering comfort and assistance to individuals who feel they are experiencing unexplained or paranormal activity at a home or other location. These investigators approach a location with the goal of alleviating the fear and discomfort of the occupants by listening to their experiences and providing advice and reassurance.

Some so-called paranormal groups mimics the methodology of a traditional ghost/demon hunting team; however, their primary goal is to frighten the homeowner/client into a belief that they are in danger and that immediate action to "cleanse" the home is imperative. These groups will act quickly to confuse the homeowner/client by pointing to certain items in the home as being "possessed" and will then offer to remove said items to make the home safe. Typically, these items are antiques, relics, or family heirlooms that will later be put on display in a paranormal museum hosted by said group where a charge is incurred for admission to view such articles.

Typically, ghost hunting groups are a mix of several differing outlooks. Most advertise their services online, but the majority do not charge for investigations in hopes of finding new and interesting places to explore.

Summarized by other groups, there are four basic classifications of ghost hunters, though many groups can fall into one or more categories.

Scientific, generally out to either prove or disprove paranormal phenomena such as ghosts through the use of scientific protocols.

Interactive, using both science and practiced beliefs to form an answer about phenomena. This group can include students of cryptozoology, UFO's, conspiracies, etc.

Chasers/Busters, avid believers out to prove by any means that a phenomenon does exist, even regardless of evidence.

Religious/Spiritual, believers who specialize in religious beliefs or occult beliefs and who fight against the practices of negative forces, such as demons and evil presences.

Ghost hunting is practiced by many paranormal investigation groups whose members sometimes promote their findings on the web as proof of hauntings. These findings are generally challenged by skeptics as wishful thinking, pareidolia or the product of scientifically unsound practices and beliefs. Critics question ghost-hunting's methodology, particularly its use of instrumentation, as there is no scientifically-proven link between the existence of ghosts and cold spots or electromagnetic fields. According to skeptical investigator Joe Nickell, "...the approach of the typical ghost hunter—a nonscientist using equipment for a purpose for which it was not made and has not been shown to be effective—is sheer pseudoscience." There is also concern that members of ghost-hunting groups may inflate their qualifications.


ambient light ghost photos - Ambient light (also called available or existing light) is a term used by photographers, cinematographers and other practitioners of the visual arts to refer to the illumination surrounding a subject or scene, specifically any and all light not provided by the photographer.

Levels of ambient light are most frequently considered relative to additional lighting used as fill light, in which case the ambient light is normally treated as the key light. In some cases, ambient light may be used as a fill, in which case additional lighting provides the stronger light source, for example in bounce flash photography. The relative intensity of ambient light and fill light is known as the lighting ratio, an important factor in calculating contrast in the finished image.

anomalous psychology - A number of studies conducted in the American, European, and Australasian continents have found that a majority of people surveyed report having had experiences that could be interpreted as telepathy, precognition, and similar phenomena. Variables that have been associated with reports of psi-phenomena include belief in the reality of psi; the tendency to have hypnotic, dissociative, and other alterations of consciousness; and, less reliably so, neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience. Although psi-related experiences can occur in the context of such psychopathologies as schizotypal personality, dissociative, and other disorders, most individuals who endorse a belief in psi are well-adjusted, lack serious pathology, and are not intellectually deficient or lacking critical abilities.

anomaly- An irregularity, a mis proportion, or something that is strange or unusual, or unique strange occurence.

apophenia - is the experience of seeing patterns or connections in random or meaningless data. The term was coined in 1958 by Klaus Conrad, who defined it as the "unmotivated seeing of connections" accompanied by a "specific experience of an abnormal meaningfulness".

While observations of relevant work environments and human behaviors in these environments is a very important first step in coming to understand any new domain, this activity is in and of its self not sufficient to constitute scientific research. It is fraught with problems of subjective bias in the observer. We (like the experts we study) often see what we expect to see, we interpret the world through our own personal lens. Thus we are extraordinarily open to the trap of apophenia.
—Klaus Conrad, A Cognitive Approach to Situation Awareness: Theory and Application

In statistics, apophenia would be classed as a Type I error (false positive, false alarm, caused by an excess in sensitivity). Apophenia is often used as an explanation of paranormal and religious claims, and can also explain a belief in pseudoscience[citation needed].

Conrad originally described this phenomenon in relation to the distortion of reality present in psychosis, but it has become more widely used to describe this tendency in healthy individuals without necessarily implying the presence of neurological differences or mental illness. In the case of autistic spectrum disorders, including Asperger syndrome and individuals who are autistic savants, individuals may in fact be aware of patterns (such as those present in complex systems, large numbers, music, etc) that are infrequently noticed by neurotypical people. Rather than being aware of patterns that do not exist, autistic individuals may be aware of meaningful patterns within situations that appear meaningless to others.

apparition - a physical manifestation of a ghost or spirit. apparition is an act or instance of appearing, including: a religious vision such as a Marian apparition; or certain ostensibly paranormal experiences such as ghosts, doppelgänger or bilocation; or any other apparitional experience (i.e. anomalous, quasi-perceptual experience).

apport - An apport is the paranormal transference of an article from one place to another, or an appearance of an article from an unknown source. Apports are often associated with poltergeist activity, and on rare occasions are said to be witnessed landing on the floor, in a person's lap or dropping from the ceiling. Flowers are a well known form of apport at spiritualistic séances, but tar and mud have also been reported.

Conversely, an asport is the transference of a small object from a known location to an unknown location via paranormal means.

As with all paranormal phenomena, apports are highly controversial, with critics such as Robert Todd Carroll saying that they are the result of magic tricks.

astral body - The Astral body is a subtle body posited by some neo-theosophical philosophers as an intermediate between the intelligent soul and the physical body, composed of a subtle material, or the soul body, composed of an ethereal matter and posited by some western religious philosophies, based upon Esoteric Christian teachings,] to intermediate between the spirit and the physical body. The concept ultimately derives from the philosophy of Plato: it is related to an astral plane, which consists of the planetary heavens of astrology. The term was adopted by nineteenth-century Theosophists and neo-Rosicrucians.

The idea is rooted in common worldwide religious accounts of the afterlife in which the soul's journey or "ascent" is described in such terms as "an ecstatic.., mystical or out-of body experience, wherein the spiritual traveller leaves the physical body and travels in his/her subtle body (or dreambody or astral body) into ‘higher’ realms". Hence "the "many kinds of 'heavens', 'hells' and purgatorial existences believed in by followers of innumerable religions" may also be understood as astral phenomena, as may the various "phenomena of the séance room". The phenomenon of apparitional experience is therefore related, as is made explicit in Cicero's Dream of Scipio.

The astral body is sometimes said to be visible as an aura of swirling colours. It is widely linked today with out-of-the-body experience or astral projection. Where this refers to a supposed movement around the real world, as in Muldoon and Carrington's book The Projection of the Astral Body, it conforms to Madame Blavatsky's usage of the term. Elsewhere this latter is termed "etheric", while "astral" denotes an experience of dream-symbols, archetypes, memories, spiritual beings and visionary landscapes. In reference to the secular scientific world view the concept is now generally considered superseded, being rooted in an attribution of materiality and dimensionality to the psychic world.

astral plane -The astral plane, also called the astral world, is a plane of existence postulated by classical (particularly neo-Platonic), mediaeval, oriental and esoteric philosophies and mystery religions. It is the world of the planetary spheres, crossed by the soul in its astral body on the way to being born and after death, and generally said to be populated by angels, spirits or other immaterial beings. In the late 19th and early 20th century the term was popularised by Theosophy and neo-Rosicrucianism.

The "Barzakh" or inter-world in Islam, the "World of Yetzirah" in Lurianic Kabbalah, the "Spirit World" in Spiritualism and the "Fairy World" of Celtic spirituality are all related concepts.

astral projection -Astral projection (or astral travel) is an esoteric interpretation of a type of out-of-body experience that assumes the existence of an "astral body" separate from the physical body and capable of traveling outside it. Astral projection is experienced as being "out of the body".[2] Unlike dreaming or near death experiences, astral projection is practiced deliberately.

The idea of astral travel is rooted in common worldwide religious accounts of the afterlife [3] in which the soul's journey or "ascent" is described in such terms as "an...out-of body experience, wherein the spiritual traveller leaves the physical body and travels in his/her subtle body (or dreambody or astral body) into ‘higher’ realms."

There is little evidence for astral projection, and that which does exist rests mainly in subjective personal accounts of the experience. Hundreds of personal accounts of astral projection were published in a number of books through the 1960s and 70s in an effort to validate religious concepts of the soul and an afterlife. Because of their subjective nature, however, there are many plausible explanations that can account for these experiences which do not rely on the existence of paranormal, supernatural, or psychic activity

aura - In parapsychology and many forms of spirituality an aura is a field of subtle, luminous radiation surrounding a person or object like the halo or aureola of religious art. The depiction of such an aura in religious art usually connotes a person of particular power or holiness.

According to the literature of movements (such as Theosophy, Anthroposophy, Archeosophy, etc.) each color of the aura has a precise meaning, indicating a precise emotional state. A complete description of the Aura and its colors was provided by Charles Leadbeater, a theosophist of the 19th century. The works of Leadbeater were later developed by Palamidessi and others.

Skeptics such as Robert Todd Carroll doubt the evidence presented for the perception of auras, contending that auras may be seen for explainable reasons such as migraines or synaesthesia.[ Some people see auras as the result of a migraine, epilepsy, a visual system disorder, or a brain disorder. Eye fatigue can also produce an aura, sometimes to referred to as "eye burn".

automatism - Has taken on many forms: the automatic writing and drawing initially (and still to this day) practiced by surrealists can be compared to similar, or perhaps parallel phenomena, such as the non-idiomatic improvisation of free jazz. Surrealist automatism is different from mediumistic automatism, from which the term was inspired. Ghosts, spirits or the like are not purported to be the source of surrealist automatic messages.

automatic drawing - Automatic drawing (distinguished from drawn expression of mediums) was developed by the surrealists, as a means of expressing the subconscious. In automatic drawing, the hand is allowed to move 'randomly' across the paper. In applying chance and accident to mark-making, drawing is to a large extent freed of rational control. Hence the drawing produced may be attributed in part to the subconscious and may reveal something of the psyche, which would otherwise be repressed. Examples of automatic drawing were produced by mediums and practitioners of the psychic arts. It was thought by some Spiritualists to be a spirit control that was producing the drawing whilst physically taking control of the medium's body.

Automatic drawing was pioneered by André Masson. Artists who practised automatic drawing include Joan Miró, Salvador Dalí, Jean Arp and André Breton. The technique was transferred to painting (as seen in Miró's paintings which often started out as automatic drawings), and has been adapted to other media; there have even been automatic "drawings" in computer graphics. Pablo Picasso was also thought to have expressed a type of automatic drawing in his later work, and particularly in his etchings and lithographic suites of the 1960s.

Most of the surrealists' automatic drawings were illusionistic, or more precisely, they developed into such drawings when representational forms seemed to suggest themselves. In the 1940s and 1950s the French-Canadian group called Les Automatistes pursued creative work (chiefly painting) based on surrealist principles. They abandoned any trace of representation in their use of automatic drawing. This is perhaps a more pure form of automatic drawing since it can be almost entirely involuntary - to develop a representational form requires the conscious mind to take over the process of drawing, unless it is entirely accidental and thus incidental. These artists, led by Paul-Emile Borduas, sought to proclaim an entity of universal values and ethics proclaimed in their manifesto Refus Global.

As alluded to above, surrealist artists often found that their use of 'automatic drawing' was not entirely automatic, rather it involved some form of conscious intervention to make the image or painting visually acceptable or comprehensible, "...Masson admitted that his 'automatic' imagery involved a two-fold process of unconscious and conscious activity.

automatic writing - Automatic writing is the process, or product, of writing material that does not come from the conscious thoughts of the writer. People who believe in "automatic writing" say that the writer's hand forms the message, with the person being unaware of what will be written. In some cases, it is done by people in a trance state. Other times the writer is aware (not in a trance) of their surroundings but not of the actions of their writing hand.

While advocates of automatic writing believe that their experiences are genuine, the Encyclopedia Britannica article on spiritualism notes that "...one by one, the mediums were discovered to be engaged in fraud, sometimes employing the techniques of stage magicians in their attempts to convince people of their clairvoyant powers." The article also notes that "the exposure of widespread fraud within the spiritualist movement severely damaged its reputation and pushed it to the fringes of society in the United States."

banshee - The banshee (rom the Irish bean sí ("woman of the síde" or "woman of the fairy mounds") is a female spirit in Irish mythology, usually seen as an omen of death and a messenger from the Otherworld. Her Scottish counterpart is the bean shìth (also spelled bean-shìdh).

The aos sí ("people of the mounds", "people of peace") are variously believed to be the survivals of pre-Christian Gaelic deities, spirits of nature, or the ancestors. Some Theosophists and Celtic Christians have also referred to the aos sí as "fallen angels". They are commonly referred to in English as "fairies", and the banshee can also be described as a "fairy woman".

bogeyman - Boog, Boogyman, bogyman, boogieman, boogey monster, or boogeyman, is a folkloric or legendary ghostlike monster often believed in by many adults children. The bogeyman has no specific appearance, and conceptions of the monster can vary drastically even from household to household within the same community; in many cases he simply has no set appearance in the mind of a child, but is just an amorphous embodiment of terror.

Bogeyman can be used metaphorically to denote a person or thing of which someone has an irrational fear. Parents often say that if their child is naughty, the bogeyman will get them, in an effort to make them behave. The bogeyman legend may originate from Scotland, where such creatures are sometimes called bogles, boggarts, or bogies.

Bogeyman tales vary by region. In some places the bogeyman is male; in others, female, and in others, both. In some Midwestern states of the United States, the bogeyman scratches at the window. In the Pacific Northwest he may manifest in "green fog." In other places he hides under the bed or in the closet and tickles children when they go to sleep at night. It is said that a wart can be transmitted to someone by the bogeyman. Bogeymen may be said to target a specific mischief – for instance, a bogeyman that punishes children who suck their thumbs – or general misbehavior.

Some say they are the ghosts of Ecto-serial killers.

Serial killer is a person who murders three or more people (although some have been defined as serial killers based on proof of only two such as Ed Gein) with a "cooling off" period between each murder and whose motivation for killing is largely based on psychological gratification. One hypothesis is that all serial killers suffer from some form of Antisocial Personality Disorder. They are usually not psychotic, and thus may appear to be quite normal and often even charming, a state of adaptation which Hervey Cleckley calls the "mask of sanity." There is sometimes a sexual element to the murders. The murders may have been completed/attempted in a similar fashion and the victims may have had something in common, for example occupation, race, or sex.

The term serial killer is said to have been coined by Michigan State University alumnus and FBI agent Robert Ressler in the 1970s. Serial killer entered the popular vernacular in large part due to the widely publicized crimes of Ted Bundy and David Berkowitz in the middle years of that decade.

Bogeyman-like beings are nearly universal; common to folklore in many disparate countries.

Azerbaijan - A boogeyman-like creature parents refer to make children behave is called khokhan ( "xoxan").
Brazil and Portugal- A similar creature with the same function (to scare misbehaving children) exists as the "Bag Man" (Portuguese: "homem do saco"). It is portrayed as an adult male, usually in the form of a bum, or a hobo, who carries a sack on his back (much like Santa Claus would), and collects mean disobedient children to sell. Parents may tell their kids that they will call the "Sack man" to collect them if they do not behave. A monster more akin to the Bogeyman is called "Bicho Papão" (Eating Beast). A notable difference is 'homem do saco' is a daily menace and "Bicho Papão" is a bed time (nightly) menace.
Bulgaria - In Bulgaria children are sometimes told that a dark scary monster-like person called Torbalan (Bulgarian : meaning a sack , so his name means "Man with a sack") will come and kidnap them with his large sack if they misbehave. In some villages people used to believe that a hairy, dark, ghost-like creature called a talasam (Tal-ah-SUHM) lived in the shadows of the barn or in the attic and came out at night to scare little children.
Czech Republic - Bubak or hastrman (Bugbear, scarecrow, respectively) is the Czech boogeyman; he is like Torbalan in being a man with a sack who takes children. He also, however, takes adults, and is known for hiding by riverbanks and making a sound like a lost baby, in order to lure the unwary. He weaves on nights of the full moon, making clothes for his stolen souls, and has a cart drawn by cats.
Denmark - The equivalent of the Bogeyman in Danish is bussemanden. It hides under the bed and grabs children who will not sleep. Like the English, it is also a slang term for nasal mucus.
Finland - The equivalent of the Bogeyman in Finland is mörkö. The most famous usage of the word these days takes place in Moomin-stories (originally written in Swedish) in which mörkö (the Groke) is a frightening, dark blue, big, ghost-looking creature.
France - The French equivalent of the Bogeyman is le croque-mitaine ("the mitten-biter").
Germany - in Germany the Bogeyman is known as Der schwarze Mann (the black man), the "Buhmann" or the Butzemann. "Schwarz" does not refer to the color of skin but to his preference for hiding in dark places, like the closet, under the bed of children or in forests at night. There is also an active game for little children which is called Wer hat Angst vorm schwarzen Mann? (Who is afraid of the black man?).
Greece - in Greece the equivalent of the Bogeyman is known as Baboulas (. Most of the times he is said to be hiding under the bed, although it is used by the parents in a variety of ways.
Haiti - in Haiti, the Boogeyman is a giant, and a counterpart of Father Christmas, renowned for abducting bad children by putting them in his knapsack. His name in the Haitian creole patois is Tonton Macoute.
Hungary - "Mumus" , the expression is often used to frighten kids when they do something wrong or just to have them fear something, usually the expression is used in the following context "the Mumus will take you away".
India - In India, the entity is known by different names.
North India - Children are sometimes threatened with the Bori Baba, who carries a sack (bori) in which he places children he captures. A similar character is the Chownki Daar, a night shift security guard who takes children who refuse to go to sleep.
South India - In the state of Tamil Nadu, children are often mock threatened with the Rettai Kannan (the two-eyed one) or Poochaandi. In the state of Andhra Pradesh, the equivalent of bogeyman is Buchadu.
Iran - In Persian culture, children who misbehave might be told by their parents to be afraid of lulu who eats up the naughty children. Lulu is usually called lulu-khorkhore (bogeyman who eats everything up). The threat is generally used to make small children eat their meals.
Italy - The Italian equivalent of the Bogeyman is l'uomo nero ("the black man"), portrayed as a tall man wearing a heavy black coat, with a black hood or hat which hides his face. Sometimes, parents will knock loudly under the table, pretending that someone is knocking at the door, and saying: "Here comes l'uomo nero! He must know that there's a child here who doesn't want to drink his soup!" L'uomo nero is not supposed to eat or harm children, just take them away to a mysterious and frightening place. A popular lullaby says that he would keep a child with him "for a whole month". As the color black is associated with fascism in Italy, in adult language l'uomo nero is often used in political puns. Since the 1980s, "nero" has also replaced "negro" as a term for black-skinned people, so the expression "uomo nero" is also sometimes heard in racist puns. Another Italian equivalent of the Bogeyman is the Carthaginian general and statesman, Hannibal Barca. Hannibal was regarded as the greatest enemy Rome ever faced and thus became an important part of Roman culture. The threat he posed to Rome was so great that he became associated with fear and parents used him and still use him today as an instrument to reprimand or correct a misbehaving child, usually in the form "Behave well or Hannibal will come and get you". Another Italian equivalent is babau(called sometimes babao or barabao).
Japan - Namahage are demons that warn children not to be lazy or cry, during the Namahage Sedo Matsuri, or "Demon Mask Festival", when villagers don demon masks and pretend to be these spirits.
Korea - In Gyungsang province, Kokemi is understood as a monster that appears to get misbehaving children. The word kokemi, however, is derived from a word Kotgahm , dried persimmon. According to Korean folklore, a woman, in an attempt to soothe her crying child, said "Here comes a tiger to come and get you. I'll let him in unless you stop crying." Accidentally, a tiger passed by, overheard her and decided to wait for his free meal. Instead of opening the door of the house, to the tiger's disappointment, the mother offered her child a dried persimon saying "Here's a kotgahm." Of course, the child, busy eating, stopped crying. The tiger, not knowing what a Kotgahm is, ran away thinking "this must be a scary monster for whom even I am no match." (Tigers are revered by Koreans as most powerful and fearsome creatures.) Other variations include mangtae younggam an oldman (younggam) who carries a mesh sack (mahngtae) to put his kidnapped children in. In some regions, mangtae younggam is replaced by mangtae halmum, an old woman with a mesh sack.
Mexico - El Coco/Cuco. Is a creature that eats children that misbehave when they are told to go to bed. Parents will sing lullabies or tell rhymes to the children warning them that if they don't sleep, El Coco will come and get them". In the Mexican-American community the creature is known as "El cucuy". Social sciences professor Manuel Medrano said popular legend describes cucuy as a small humanoid with glowing red eyes that hides in closets or under the bed. 'Some lore has him as a kid who was the victim of violence ... and now he’s alive, but he’s not,' Medrano said, citing Xavier Garza’s 2004 book Creepy Creatures and other Cucuys."
Norway - Busemannen
Netherlands - Boeman
Philippines - Pugot, Mamu (only in most Ilocano regions)
Poland - in some regions, like Silesia or Great Poland, children are mock threatened with bebok (babok, bobok), a bogeyman-like creature from old Polish legends.
Quebec - in this French-speaking province, the Bonhomme Sept-Heures (7 o'clock man) is said to visit houses around 7 o'clock to take misbehaving children who will not go to bed back to his cave where he feasts on them.
Romania - in Romania the equivalent of the Bogeyman is known as bau-bau (pronuonced "bow-bow"). Bau-bau stories are used by parents to scare children who misbehave.
Russia - usually said to be hiding under the bed, babay ) is used to keep children in bed or stop them from misbehaving. 'Babay' means 'old man' in Tatar. Children are told that "babay" is an old man with a bag or a monster, and that it will take them away if they misbehave.
Slovenia The Slovenian Bogeyman is called Bavbav. It doesn't have a particular shape or form. Many times it isn't even defined as a man or anything human. It can be thought of as a kind of sprite or spirit although the word "spirit" also doesn't give it justice.
Spain - The Spanish Bogeyman is known as El Cuco, or, more often in Spain, El Coco (also named in some parts of Spain as El Ogro), a shapeless figure, sometimes a hairy monster, that eats children that misbehave when they are told to go to bed. Parents will sing lullabies or tell rhymes to the children warning them that if they don't sleep, El Coco will come and get them. The rhyme originated in the 17th century has evolved over the years, but still retaining its original meaning. The term is also used in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. The aforementioned Brazilian "Bag Man" also exists here in the form of the Hombre del Saco or Hombre de la bolsa, who is usually depicted as a mean and impossibly ugly and skinny old man who eats the misbehaving children he collects.
Sri Lanka - Goni Billa - A scary man carrying a sack to capture and keep children. Elders use him for kids who refused to behave well.
Sweden - in Sweden the Bogeyman is referred to either as Monstret under sängen which essentially means "the monster under the bed", or Svarta mannen; "the Black man".
Switzerland - in Switzerland the Bogeyman is called Böögg and has an important role in the springtime ceremonies. The figure is the symbol of winter and death, so in the Sechseläuten ceremony in the City of Zürich, where a figure of the Böögg is burnt.
Turkey - in Turkey there is an old lullaby about a creature called Dunganga, who puts misbehaving children in its basket and takes them back to its cave to be eaten.
Ukraine - eastern part of Ukraine has babay, possibly due to Russian influence (see entry for Russia above).
Vietnam - ông ba b? (in the North - literally mister-three-bags) or ông k? (in the South) is used to make small children eat their meals or to scare children who misbehave, usually in a mock-threatening way.

bowel ghost - Ghost that are known to infest themselves in someone's bowel or anal cavity. Woman usually suffer from womb ghost or mouth ghosts. their or even ghosts that will live in a persons navel or ear. Ear ghost tend to speak to you so you can hear them audibly.

Carbon monoxide - Some of the phenomena generally associated with haunted houses, including strange visions and sounds, feelings of dread, illness, and the sudden, apparently inexplicable death of all the occupants, can be attributed to carbon monoxide poisoning. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include listlessness, depression, dementia, emotional disturbances, and hallucinations.

In one famous case, carbon monoxide poisoning was clearly identified as the cause of an alleged haunting. Dr. William Wilmer, an ophthalmologist, described the experiences of one of his patients in a 1921 article published in the American Journal of Ophthalmology. "Mr. and Mrs. H." moved into a new home, but soon began to complain of headaches and listlessness. They began to hear bells and footsteps during the night, soon accompanied by strange physical sensations and mysterious figures. When they began to investigate, they found the previous residents had experienced similar symptoms. Upon examination, their furnace was found to be severely damaged, resulting in incomplete combustion and forcing most of the fumes into the house rather than up the chimney. After the stove was fixed, the family fully recovered and did not experience any further unusual events.

A report published in 2005 described a 23-year-old female victim of carbon monoxide poisoning, found delirious and hyperventilating, who claimed to have seen a ghost while in the shower. A new gas water heater had just been installed in her home, apparently improperly, which flooded the house with carbon monoxide when the victim closed all the exterior windows and doors and took a shower.

Carbon monoxide is the leading cause of accidental poisoning deaths in North America.

channelling - There are two main techniques mediumship developed in the latter half of the 20th century. One type involves psychics or sensitives who can speak to spirits and then relay what they hear to their clients. One of the most noted channels of this type is clairvoyant Danielle Egnew, known for her communication with angelic entities.

The other incarnation of non-physical mediumship is a form of channeling in which the channeler goes into a trance, or "leaves their body" and then becomes “possessed” by a specific spirit, who then talks through them. In the trance, the medium enters a cataleptic state marked by extreme rigidity. The control spirit then takes over, the voice may change completely and the spirit answers the questions of those in its presence or giving spiritual knowledge. The most successful and widely known channeler of this variety is JZ Knight, who claims to channel the spirit of Ramtha, a 30 thousand year old man. Others claim to channel spirits from "future dimensional", ascended masters or in the case of the trance mediums of the Brahma Kumaris, God himself. Channeling is popularly parodied in the "Doonesbury" cartoon where a ditzy female character is occasionally taken over by "Hunk-Ra," an assertive 21,000-year-old warrior based on Ramtha. Other notable channels are Jane Roberts for [Seth], Margaret McElroy for [Maitreya] and Serge J. Grandbois for [Kris].

Hossca Harrison is medium for a non-physical entity named Jonah. There is video of Jonah taking over Hossca's body and giving a message on youtube.

clairvoyance - (from 17th century French with clair meaning "clear" and voyance meaning "visibility") is the apparent ability to gain information about an object, location or physical event through means other than the known human senses, a form of extra-sensory perception. A person said to have the ability of clairvoyance is referred to as a clairvoyant ("one who sees clear").

Claims for the existence of paranormal psychic abilities such as clairvoyance are highly controversial. Parapsychology explores this possibility, but the existence of such paranormal phenomena is not generally accepted by the scientific community.

collective apparition - a spirit sighting shared by more than one person at the same time and place.

crisis apparition - a specific type of spirit sighting during which the apparition manifests itself to a particular human being, usually a loved one, at a time of crisis or death, or on or near the anniversary of death.

cross roads - the point where two roads intersect. Cross roads are thought to be a focus point for paranormal activity. The devil and evil spirits are siad to frequent cross roads looking to steal souls. In Voodoo Hoodoo it is where the Lwa's are said to travel.

CRYPTID - Cryptid (from the greek "κρύπτω" meaning "hide") is a term which is used in cryptozoology to refer to a creature whose existence has been suggested but lacks scientific support. This includes purported organisms such as Bigfoot, Yeti, and the Loch Ness Monster, as well as extinct species claimed by cryptozoologists to be living today, such as dinosaurs and the el chupacabra.

Cryptozoology (from Greek κρυπτός, kriptos, "hidden" + zoology; literally, "study of hidden animals") refers to the search for animals which are considered to be legendary or otherwise nonexistent by mainstream biology. This includes looking for living examples of animals which are extinct, such as dinosaurs; animals whose existence lacks physical support but which appear in myths, legends, or are reported, such as Bigfoot and el Chupacabra; and wild animals dramatically outside of their normal geographic ranges, such as phantom cats or "ABC"s (An acronym commonly used by cryptozoologists that stands for Alien Big Cats).

According to authors Ben Roesch and John Percy Moore, "Cryptozoology ranges from pseudoscientific to useful and interesting, depending on how it is practiced." They further note that it is "not strictly a science", that "many scientists and skeptics classify cryptozoology as a pseudoscience" and that "papers on the topic are rarely published in scientific journals, no formal education on the subject is available, and no scientists are employed to study cryptozoology."

Those involved in cryptozoological study are known as cryptozoologists. The animals they study are often referred to as cryptids, a term coined by John Wall in 1983.

Invention of the term "cryptozoology" is often attributed to zoologist Bernard Heuvelmans, though Heuvelmans attributes coinage of the term to the late Scottish explorer and adventurer Ivan T. Sanderson. Heuvelmans' 1955 book On the Track of Unknown Animals traces the scholarly origins of the discipline to Anthonie Cornelis Oudemans and his 1892 study, The Great Sea Serpent. Heuvelmans argued that cryptozoology should be undertaken with scientific rigor, but with an open-minded, interdisciplinary approach. He also stressed that attention should be given to local, urban and folkloric sources regarding such creatures, arguing that while often layered in unlikely and fantastic elements, folktales can have small grains of truth and important information regarding undiscovered organisms. Loren Coleman, a modern popularizer of cryptozoology, has chronicled the history and personalities of cryptozoology in his books.

Another notable book on the subject is Willy Ley's Exotic Zoology (1959). Ley was best known for his writings on rocketry and related topics, but he was trained in paleontology, and wrote a number of books about animals. Ley's collection Exotic Zoology is of some interest to cryptozoology, as he discusses the Yeti and sea serpents, as well as relict dinosaurs. The book entertains the possibility that some legendary creatures (like the sirrush, the unicorn or the cyclops) might be based on actual animals, through misinterpretation of the animals and/or their remains. Also notable is the work of British zoologist and cryptozoologist Karl Shuker, who has published 12 books and countless articles on numerous cryptozoological subjects since the mid-1980s.

demon - In religion, folklore, and mythology a demon (or daemon, dæmon, daimon from Greek: [ðaïmon]) is a supernatural being that is generally described as a malevolent spirit. In Christian terms demons are generally understood as fallen angels, formerly of God. A demon is frequently depicted as a force that may be conjured and insecurely controlled. The "good" demon in recent use is largely a literary device (e.g., Maxwell's demon), though references to good demons can be found in Hesiod and Shakespeare. In common language, to "demonize" a person means to characterize or portray them as evil, or as the source of evil.

demonology - the systematic study of demons or beliefs about demons. Insofar as it involves exegesis, demonology is an orthodox branch of theology. It is the branch of theology relating to superhuman beings who are not gods. It deals both with benevolent beings that have no circle of worshippers or so limited a circle as to be below the rank of gods, and with malevolent beings of all kinds. It may be noted that the original sense of "demon," from the time of Homer onward, was a benevolent being; but in English the name now holds connotations of malevolence.

Demons, when regarded as spirits, may belong to either of the classes of spirits recognized by primitive animism that is to say, they may be human, or non-human, separable souls, or discarnate spirits which have never inhabited a body. A sharp distinction is often drawn between these two classes, notably by the Melanesians, the West Africans, and others; the Arab djinn, for example, are not reducible to modified human souls; at the same time these classes are frequently conceived as producing identical results, e.g. diseases Demonology, though often referred to with negative connotation, was not always seen as evil or devilish as the term would have one believe.

"Demonolatry" not to be confused with Demonology (the study of Demons)--means, literally, the worship of Demons. Although the word is old, it was originally used (like the label Satanism) as a term of derision to refer to a variety of different religions that the early Church persecuted. It was not adopted as a term of self-reference until relatively recently (late 1950's/early 1960's). Even then, Demonolatry was clandestine. It was not until 1998 when the Guild of Demonolatry (now defunct) finally funded a website Tezrian's Vault--devoted to the religion that Demonolatry came out-of-the-closet. That site closed five years ago. Previously, many sects simply referred to themselves as followers of [insert name of Demon here].

Modern Demonolatry is a polytheistic religion in which Demonic entities are worshiped and worked with as wise divinities. Each Demon is the wellspring of a single energy source. These energies can be defined as universal elements, emotions, or ideas. The most common pantheon of Gods used are Demonic--from Christian mythologies about diabolical beings, which were formerly the Gods of pre-Christian pagan religions. However, Roman, Greek, and other pantheons have been used. Perhaps the most popular of the pantheons is the Richard Dukant Hierarchy, which was developed in the early 1960's. It became the basis for many modern Demonolatry sects.

Each practitioner of Demonolatry chooses what is known as a "counterpart" Demon, or a Demon that defines or identifies with the attributes of the practitioner. This becomes the individual's main or patron deity. All Demons become secondary to this particular Demon. For those practitioners who border on what might be called traditional Satanism, this Demon may or may not be Satan. In Demonolatry, Satan is the "fifth element," or the source of all other energies. In other words, Satan is the Whole and every other Demon is simply a part of the whole. Each person, animal, plant, and thing that exists in nature is a part of the whole [the divine] as well. Because of this, there are no Demons more "powerful" than others. In worshiping Demons, Demonolaters mean that they respect them and hold them in high regard as teachers and friends. They are not evil, but, rather, are benign. Some Demonolators believe that Demons are simply energy sources, while others believe they are actual entities. This varies from practitioner to practitioner. Regardless of their perspective, Traditional Demonolaters reject Christian mythology about Satan, Demons, heaven or hell, and do not believe in the Christian God.

direct voice phenomenon (DVP) - a spirit voice heard during a seance that is usually emitted from an area near the medium or through a horn or trumpet that is presumably spiritual in nature. The voice does not come from the mouth of the medium and is always directed to those attending the seance.

direct writing - a phenomenon in which spirit hand writing appears on a previously unmarked surface.

discarnate - a spirit or ghost; literally "without a body."

divining rod - (also known as dowsing rod) is an apparatus used in dowsing. There are many types of divining rods:

two brass "L" shaped wire rods (commonly made of brazing or welding rod, but glass or plastic have also been accepted) that are to be held one in each hand. When something is found, they cross over one another making an "X" over the found object. If the object is long and straight, such as a water pipe, the wires will point in opposite directions, showing the direction the object is pointing. Brass is commonly used.

A forked (or "Y" shaped) branch of a tree or bush. The two ends on the forked side are to be held one in each hand with the third pointing straight ahead. Often the branches are grasped palms down. The pointing end turns up or down when water is found. This method is sometimes known as 'Willow Witching'. Hazel or willow branches were commonly used; these were called virgula divina.
Divining rods are used in dowsing, a type of divination that claims to be able to find ground water, oil, and other mineral resources by non-scientific means. Expert dowsers are allegedly capable of dowsing exact depth measurements of water veins, electromagnetism, currents and telluric phenomena. They are also allegedly capable of measuring blood toxicity, white cells, and sugar levels, and detecting human illness and health. Expert dowsers are allegedly not limited to any specific time and space, claiming the ability to dowse any material at any given time from any location.

ecto clot - another name for an orb. It explained as: A ball of light thatmigrates from one part of the room (through no visible or recodable air monvement circulation) a The term was coinedby Gina Lanier in 1993. This is in contrast with a fuzzy clot which many today call ecto dust. Or can also refer to heavy photo ecto mists. The slang terms used in many area's is ecto dandruff, ghost lice or spook spooze.

ecto dandruff - Dandruff (also called scurf and historically termed Pityriasis capitis) is due to the excessive shedding of dead skin cells from the scalp. As it is normal for skin cells to die and flake off, a small amount of flaking is normal and in fact quite common. Some people, however, either chronically or as a result of certain triggers, experience an unusually large amount of flaking, which can also be accompanied by redness and irritation.

Ghost are said to sometimes use our cast off recent skin cells to help them materialize.

Also many Paranormal groups reccomend using a dandruff shampoo if you suffer from it and or a memeber of a ghost hunting team. Most cases of dandruff can be easily treated with specialized shampoos.

ecto energy - The force that ghost use. A power or point of their manifestion.

ecto juice - a rubbery like clear substance that sometimes flows freely from a possesd persons nose during or after a possesion has taken place. some times it is called Pre-cum ecto Juice.

ecto serial killers - In the United States Of America a term used to define an American serial killers ghosts or mind as a spirit or ghost is thought to be possessing them. Some paranorma researches believe that thse entities, ecto serial killers demons or evil ghost sometimes possess the living if you go searching for their ghosts or those of their victims.

List Of American Serial Killers:
Charles Albright - aka The Collectionist; known for surgically removing the eyes of victims and keeping them in his house as trophies
Richard Angelo - aka The Angel of Death; nurse who killed 25 patients
Joe Ball - aka The Alligator Man, killed at least 20 women in the early 20th century in Texas
Martha Jule Beck and Raymond Fernandez - the Lonely Hearts Killers, killed at least three women and one child in the 1940s but suspected in up to 20 murders
David Berkowitz - aka Son of Sam and The .44 Caliber Killer; convicted of six murders
Bloody Benders - a family who killed guests at their inn in Labette County, Kansas, in 1872
Robert Berdella - convicted of killing six men in 1988 in Kansas City, Missouri, undoubtedly killed others, sexually tortured and dismembered his victims
Kenneth Bianchi and Angelo Buono Jr. - aka the Hillside Stranglers; killers of 13 women and suggested as possibly involved in three other killings
Richard Fran Biegenwald - convicted of killing five people in the early 1980s in the Asbury Park, New Jersey area. He is suspected in at least six other murders
Arthur Gary Bishop - Utah man who murdered five young boys; executed in 1988
William Bonin - aka The Freeway Killer; with several accomplices, claimed the lives of 20 boys in California
Robert Charles Browne - Convicted of two murders in Colorado, but says he has killed 48, some of which have been corroborated
Jerry Brudos - aka The Shoe-Fetish Slayer, killed at least five women
Theodore Bundy - aka The Campus Killer, Lady Killer, South Hill Rapist and Chi Omega Killer; law student who raped and murdered more than 35 women in several states
Michael Bear Carson and Suzan Carson - nomadic hippie killers involved in the counter-culture movement, they were suspects in 12 homicides and they began life sentences for three murders in 1983
Dean Carter - murdered at least four women
Richard Chase - aka the Vampire of Sacramento; murdered six people in the 1970s
Ray Copeland and Faye Copeland - oldest couple ever sentenced to death in the United States at the age of 69 and 75. Ray and Faye were convicted of killing five men. Their modus operandi was to hire unskilled drifters as farm hands and later kill them
Dean Corll, Elmer Wayne Henley and David Brooks - committed the Houston Mass Murders
Juan Corona - California killer convicted of murdering 25 men in 1971
Andrew Cunanan - murdered five people, including fashion designer Gianni Versace, in a cross-country journey during a three-month period in 1997, ending with Cunanan's suicide, at the age of 27
Charles Cullen - nurse in New Jersey and Pennsylvania who killed as many as 40 patients through lethal injection
Jeffrey Dahmer - Milwaukee cannibal who kept heads, skulls and body parts in his apartment; convicted of 15 murders, but believed responsible for at least two others
Albert DeSalvo - aka The Boston Strangler; convicted of strangling 13 women
Nannie Doss - aka The Giggling Granny; serial poisoner who killed 11 people: four husbands, two children, her two sisters, her mother, a grandson and a nephew
Mack Ray Edwards - convicted of murdering three children after having confessed to the murders of six in Los Angeles County between 1953 and 1969. He claimed at one point to have killed as many as 18
Albert Fish - aka The Cannibal, The Moon Maniac and The Werewolf of Wisteria; sadist and pedophile who cannibalized several children; convicted of one murder, confessed to two others and suspected in two other killings
Wayne Adam Ford - aka Wayward Wayne; confessed to murdering four women, believed to have killed others
Kendall Francois - serial killer from Poughkeepsie, NY who targeted prostitutes. After strangling the women, he would store them in various crawl spaces in and around his home
Joseph Paul Franklin - racist serial killer who targeted interracial couples and attempted to assassinate Larry Flynt and Vernon Jordan; convicted of 11 murders and has confessed to nine others
John Wayne Gacy Jr. - aka Killer Clown; killer of at least 33 men and boys who kept bodies buried under his Chicago home
Gerald Gallego Jr. and Charlene Williams - aka the Sex Slaves Killers, kidnapped and killed victims in the late 1970s, most of them were teenagers
Carlton Gary - Georgia murderer convicted of the murders of seven elderly women
Donald Henry Gaskins Jr. - aka "Pee Wee" Gaskins and Meanest Man in America; executed on September 6, 1991; convicted of nine murders but confessed to over 200
Edward Gein - two known victims, one suspected victim, four missing persons; elements of Gein's life and crimes have inspired, at least in part Psycho, The Silence of the Lambs and The Texas Chain Saw Massacre
Janie Lou Gibbs - Georgia poisoner who killed her three sons, a grandson, and her husband
Kristen Gilbert - Angel of Death serial killer, convicted of killing four by injection of epinephrine while working as a nurse
Harvey Glatman - Californian rapist and killer of three women; lured women to pose for "bondage photographs" and would rape and murder them; executed September 18, 1959
Jeffrey Gorton - convicted of two rape-murders in Michigan, suspected of more
Dana Sue Gray - convicted of murder of three elderly women and attempted murder of a fourth in California
Belle Gunness - murder-for-profit killer who murdered her suitors and her own children in Indiana
Robert Hansen - Alaskan baker who killed prostitutes at his cabin; convicted of four murders but admitted to 11 others.
Donald Harvey - aka Angel of Death; hospital orderly, confessed to more than 80 "mercy killings" with 37 confirmed killings
William Heirens - aka The Lipstick Killer confessed to three murders spanning from June 1945 to January 1946
Waneta Hoyt - New York woman who murdered her five children
Philip Carl Jablonski - killed at least four women in Utah
Keith Hunter Jesperson - Canadian serial killer convicted in the United States
Vincent Johnson - aka the Brooklyn Strangler; a homeless crack addict who killed at least five prostitutes
Genene Jones - Texas pediatric nurse who poisoned infants in her care. Convicted of only one murder but suspected of 10 or more others
Patrick Kearney - necrophiliac convicted of 21 murders in California and admitted to seven other murders
Edmund Kemper - started killing when he was 15 years old in Santa Cruz, California; convicted of six murders and implicated in four others
Tillie Klimek - Chicago woman who poisoned five husbands; sentenced to life imprisonment
Paul John Knowles - raped and murdered 18 people
Randy Kraft - convicted of the murders of 16 young men and boys but strongly suspected of 51 others in California
Timothy Krajcir - confessed to killing over nine women, five in Missouri and four others in Illinois and Pennsylvania
Peter Kudzinowski - killed children in New Jersey in the 1920s
Leonard Lake and Charles Ng - ex-marines and survivalists, killed at least 11 people and perhaps as many as 25; collected and murdered female sex slaves
Derrick Todd Lee - aka the Baton Rouge Serial Killer; convicted of two murders but linked by DNA evidence to five others
Henry Lee Lucas - convicted of 11 murders and confessed to about 3000 others, although most of his confessions are considered outlandish; a task force set up to investigate his claims suggested that the true number of his murders may be as high as 213
Rhonda Belle Martin - Alabama poisoner who murdered six family members, suspected of poisoning at least nine; executed in 1957
Herman Mudgett - active 1890-1894 during Chicago's 1893 World's Columbian Exposition; convicted of only one murder but definitively tied to at least 8 more and confessed to a total of 27. He is also known as H.H. Holmes
John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo - Washington D.C. area snipers; Muhammad is convicted of seven murders so far and awaiting prosecution for nine others, Malvo is convicted of, plead guilty to, or confessed to at least nine murders
Herbert Mullin - schizophrenic in Santa Cruz, California who killed people to prevent earthquakes; convicted of 10 murders and confessed to three others
Earle Nelson - aka Gorilla Man; necrophiliac serial killer; convicted and hanged for one murder but definitively implicated in about 20 more
Marie Noe - murdered eight of her children between 1949 and 1968
Carl Panzram - murderer, rapist, arsonist; executed in 1930; convicted of two murders but confessed to 19 others
Dorothea Puente - convicted of three killings but directly implicated in six others
Dennis Rader - aka the BTK Killer; killed ten people between 1974 to 1991
Ricardo Ramírez - aka the Night Stalker; terrorized Los Angeles in 1984 and 1985; convicted of 14 murders
David Parker Ray - convicted of rape and torture and sentenced to 224 years in prison. FBI believe he was responsible for the deaths of 60 women in Truth or Consequences, New Mexico
Ángel Maturino Reséndiz - killed nine people in Texas, Kentucky, and Illinois
Gary Ridgway - aka The Green River Killer; convicted of murdering 48 women in the state of Washington
Joel Rifkin - murdered 17 women in the New York City and Long Island area
John Edward Robinson - aka the Cyber Sex Killer; lured victims through the internet; convicted of murdering six women in Missouri and Kansas
Danny Rolling - pleaded guilty to murdering five students in Florida; executed in 2006
Michael Ross - raped and murdered seven women in Connecticut
Efren Saldivar - respiratory therapist who killed six patients, and possibly as many as 120
Altemio Sanchez - aka the Bike Path Rapist/Killer who was responsible for three murders and numerous rapes spanning over a 25 year period in Buffalo, New York. He is currently serving three consecutive 75 years-to-life sentences for the murders
Heriberto Seda - a copycat killer of the serial killer the Zodiac Killer
Gerard John Schaefer - aka The Killer Cop and The Florida Sex Beast; police officer who killed up to 34 women and girls
Tommy Lynn Sells - convicted of only one murder; admitted to murdering dozens of people from all over the United States, possibly in excess of 70 although only a total of six are firmly established
Arthur Shawcross - aka the Genesee River Killer; convicted of 12 murders and has admitted to another.
Robert Shulman - convicted of murdering five prostitutes between 1991 and 1996
Lemuel Smith - confessed to the murders of five people, including that of an on-duty female prison-guard
Morris Solomon Jr. - handyman killed six young women between 1986 and 1987 in a Sacramento, California, neighborhood
Gerald Stano - convicted murderer of 41 women; executed in 1998
Cary Stayner - aka the Yosemite Murderer who killed four women
Michael Swango - physician and surgeon who poisoned over 30 of his patients and colleagues
William Suff - aka the Riverside Killer who killed up to 19 women near Riverside, California
Marybeth Tinning - New York woman who poisoned nine of her children
Ottis Toole - Henry Lee Lucas's accomplice; convicted of six murders in Florida
Chester Dwayne Turner - murderer of women in Los Angeles, California; convicted of 12 murders and linked through DNA evidence to another
Henry Louis Wallace - Charlotte, North Carolina, serial killer of at least nine young women over a two year period from 1992 to 1994
Coral Watts - aka The Sunday Morning Slasher; although only convicted of two murders, at one point admitted to killing 80 people in Texas and Michigan; possibly guilty of 100 murders
Nathaniel White - Hudson Valley, New York, convicted of six murders from 1991 to 1992
Wayne Williams - aka the Atlanta Child Murderer; convicted of two murders but the police claim his arrest solved 23 others in a string of 29
Gwendolyn Graham and Catherine May Wood - Michigan duo who murdered five elderly nursing home residents in their care and claimed to have killed another
Randall Woodfield - aka the I-5 Killer; convicted of four murders but believed responsible for 14 others
Aileen Wuornos - shot six men dead in Florida; executed in 2002
Robert Lee Yates Jr. - murdered at least 13 women in Spokane County, Washington

Also these that are believed to be persons possessed by past dead ghost who'se villans were never discovered.

Ghost stories or often told of these urban legendary and haunted serial killers.

The Alphabet Killer (USA), killer of three young girls in the Rochester, New York area during the early 1970s
The Axeman Of New Orleans (USA), killer of at least eight individuals in the New Orleans, Louisiana area from May 1918 to October 1919
The Baseline Killer (USA), one man has been charged with nine murders attributed to the Baseline Killer
The Cincinnati Strangler (USA), serial killer who raped, then strangled seven mostly elderly women in Cincinnati, Ohio between 1965 and 1966.
The Claremont Serial Killer (Australia), murders of two young Australian women and the unresolved disappearance of a third in 1996 and 1997
The Cleveland Torso Murderer, aka The Mad Butcher of Kingsbury Run (USA), responsible for between 12 and 13 murders in the Cleveland, Ohio area in the 1930s
The Frankford Slasher (one murder attributed to Leonard Christopher, another murder commited in same style while he was incarcerated. Believed to still be at large.)
Jack the Ripper (UK) the most famous unidentified serial killer of all, murdered prostitutes in the East End of London in 1888
Jack The Stripper (UK), responsible for what came to be known as the London "nude murders" between 1964 and 1965
The Lisbon Ripper, murdered three women in Lisbon, (Portugal) between 1992 and 1993
The Midwest Axeman - murdered families in five towns throughout the midwestern United States from 1911 to 1912
The Oakland County Child Killer (USA), responsible for the murders of four or more children in Oakland County, Michigan, United States in 1976 and 1977
The Original Night Stalker (USA), serial killer and rapist who murdered six people in Southern California from 1979 through 1986
The Phantom Killer (USA), believed to have committed a number of murders in Texarkana between February 23 and May 4, 1946
The Servant Girl Annihilator, aka the Austin Axe Murderer (USA), responsible for at least seven murders in Austin, Texas between 1884 and 1885.
The Smiley Face Killers (USA) - for a theoretical serial killer thought by some sources to have drown college-aged young men across the northern part of the United States since 1997; most experts suggest that the deaths were accidental
The Stoneman (India) - alleged serial killer who menaced the streets of Kolkata, India in 1989
The Zodiac Killer (USA) - operated in northern California during the 1960s, claimed to have killed as many as 37 people

ecto sperm - Sometimes the name used to call a ghost that is waiting in a womans womb for her to become pregnant so it can possess her unborn child.

ectoplasm - Ectoplasm (from the Greek ektos, "outside", + plasma, "something formed or molded") is a term coined by Charles Richet to denote a substance or spiritual energy "exteriorized" by physical mediums. Ectoplasm is said to be associated with the formation of ghosts, and hypothesized to be an enabling factor in psychokinesis.

Ectoplasm is said to be produced by physical mediums when in a trance state. This material is excreted as a gauze-like substance from orifices on the medium's body and spiritual entities are said to drape this substance over their nonphysical body, enabling them to interact in our physical universe.

Physical mediums are rare in modern culture. Physical medium David Thompson is one of only a few individuals in the world today who claims to produce this phenomenon and has provided photographic evidence of ectoplasm produced under red light conditions.

Although the term is widespread in popular culture, the physical existence of ectoplasm is not accepted by mainstream science. Some tested samples purported to be ectoplasm have been found to be various non-paranormal substances, including chiffon and flakes of human skin. Other researchers have duplicated, with non-supernatural materials, the photographic effects sometimes said to prove the existence of ectoplasm.

Since its inception in the field of spiritualism, the concept of ectoplasm has escaped to become a staple in popular culture and fictional supernatural lore. Notable examples include Noel Coward's 1941 play Blithe Spirit, and the 1984 film Ghostbusters; in which "ectoplasmic residue" secreted by ghosts is portrayed as viscous, cloudy and greenish-white, similar to nasal mucus, famously referred to in Bill Murray's line, "He slimed me!"

electromagnetic field (EMF) meter - EMF meter, Electromagnetic field meter, (sometimes referred to as an EMF Detector) is a scientific instrument for measuring electromagnetic radiation. The same device is also used widely by ghost hunting groups. Critics of paranormal investigation contend that EMF meters are misused to indicate the presence of an apparation, as there is no proof that alleged spiritual beings emit an electromagnetic field.

One example of an EMF meterThere are many different types of EMF meter, but the two largest categories are single axis and tri-axis. Single axis meters are cheaper than a tri-axis meters, but take longer to complete a survey because the meter only measures one dimension of the field. Single axis instruments have to be tilted and turned on all three axes to obtain a full measurement. A tri-axis meter measures all three axes simultaneously, but these models tend to be more expensive.

Most meters measure the electromagnetic radiation flux density, which is the amplitude of any emitted radiation. Other meters measure the change in an electromagnetic field over time.

Electromagnetic fields can be either AC (Alternating current) or DC (Direct current). An EMF meter can measure AC electromagnetic fields, which are usually emitted from man-made sources such as electrical wiring, while Gauss meters or magnetometers measure DC fields, which occur naturally in the earth’s geomagnetic field and are emitted from other sources where direct current is present.

EMF meters usually measure radiation in milligauss. In absence of a moving magnetic field, an ideal meter will read 0 milligauss. Industrial EMF meters will often read 2-3 milligauss when placed in an open field devoid of emitters such as power lines (either overhead or buried).

The majority of EMF meters available are calibrated to measure electromagnetic radiation, which is alternating at 50/60Hz (the frequency of US and European mains electricity)This is because in recent years people have become concerned about the long-term health effects of exposure to high levels of radiation emitted from some electrical appliances.

There are other meters which can measure field alternating at as little as 20 Hz However these tend to be much more expensive and are only used to specific research.

electronic voice phenomenon (EVP) -Electronic voice phenomena (EVP) are sections of static noise on the radio or electronic recording which some listeners believe sound like voices speaking words, and which paranormal investigators interpret as the voices of ghosts or spirits. Recording EVP has become a technique of those who attempt to contact the souls of dead loved ones or during ghost hunting activities. In addition to deceased spirits, various paranormal investigators say that EVP could be produced by psychic echoes from the past, psychokinesis unconsciously produced by living people, and aliens. According to parapsychologist Konstantin Raudive, who popularized the idea, EVP are typically brief, usually the length of a word or short phrase.

Skeptics of the paranormal attribute the voice-like aspect of the sounds to apophenia (finding of significance or connections between insignificant or unrelated phenomena), auditory pareidolia (interpreting random sounds into voices in their own language which might otherwise sound like random noise to a foreign speaker), artifacts due to low-quality equipment, and simple hoaxes. Likewise some reported EVP can be attributed to radio interference or other well-documented phenomena.

References to EVP have appeared in the reality television shows Paranormal State, Most Haunted, Celebrity Paranormal Project, and Ghost Hunters, the fictional television series Supernatural, Medium and Ghost Whisperer and Hollywood films such as White Noise and The Sixth Sense.

As the Spiritualism religious movement became prominent in the 1840s–1920s with a distinguishing belief that the spirits of the dead can be contacted by mediums, new technologies of the era including photography were employed by spiritualists in an effort to demonstrate contact with a spirit world (see Cottingley fairies for a famous photographic example). So popular were such ideas that Thomas Edison was asked in an interview with Scientific American to comment on the possibility of using his inventions to communicate with spirits. He replied that if the spirits were only capable of subtle influences, a sensitive recording device would provide a better chance of spirit communication than the table tipping and ouija boards mediums employed at the time. However, there is no indication that Edison ever designed or constructed a device for such a purpose. As sound recording became widespread, mediums explored using this technology to demonstrate communication with the dead as well. Despite the eventual decline of Spiritualism through the latter part of the 20th century, attempts to use portable recording devices and modern digital technologies to demonstrate life after death continued to be promoted in popular culture and by a cadre of dedicated believers.

Investigation of EVP is the subject of hundreds of Internet message boards, regional, and national groups. According to paranormal investigator John Zaffis, "There's been a boom in ghost hunting ever since the Internet took off." Investigators, equipped with electronic gear such as EMF meters, video cameras and audio recorders, scour reportedly haunted venues, trying to uncover visual and audio evidence of hauntings. Many use portable recording devices in an attempt to capture EVP.

elemental - An elemental is a mythological being first appearing in the alchemical works of Paracelsus. Traditionally, there are four types:

* gnomes, earth elementals
* undines, water elementals
* sylphs, air elementals
* salamanders, fire elementals.

The exact term for each type varies somewhat from source to source, though these four are now the most usual. Most of these beings are found in folklore as well as alchemy; their names are often used interchangeably with similar beings from folklore. The sylph, however, is rarely encountered outside of alchemical contexts.

The basic concept of an elemental refers to the ancient idea of elements as fundamental building blocks of nature. In the system prevailing in the Classical world, there were four elements: fire, earth, air, and water. This paradigm was highly influential in Medieval natural philosophy, and Paracelsus evidently intended to draw a range of mythological beings into this paradigm by identifying them as belonging to one of these four elemental types.

n mysticism, magic and alchemy, an elemental is a creature (usually a spirit) that is attuned with, or composed of, one of the classical elements: air, earth, fire and water. The elements balance each other out through opposites: water quenches fire, fire boils water, earth contains air, air erodes earth. The concept of elementals seems to have been conceived by Paracelsus in the 16th century, though he did not in fact use the term "elemental" or a German equivalent. Paracelsus gave common names for the elemental types, as well as alternate names, which he seems to have considered somewhat more proper. He also referred to them by purely German terms which are roughly equivalent to "water people," "mountain people," and so on, using all the different forms interchangeably. The Paracelsian elementals were:

Translated Common Name Proper Name Element
Sylph Sylvestris Air
Pygmy Gnomus (gnome) Earth
Salamander Vulcanus Fire
Nymph Undina (undine) Water

Of these names, gnomus, undina, and sylph are all thought to have appeared first in Paracelsus' works, though undina is a fairly obvious Latin derivative. The other names are traditional terms, though the Paracelsian usage is thought to be novel.

He noted that undines are similar to humans in size, while sylphs are rougher, bigger, longer, and stronger. Gnomes are short, while salamanders are long, narrow, and lean.

In his influential De Occulta Philosophia of the same period, Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa also wrote of four classes of spirits corresponding to the four elements, though he did not give special names for the classes. Agrippa did however give an extensive list of various mythological beings of this type, although without clarifying which belongs to which elemental class.[4] Like Paracelsus, he did not use the term "elemental spirit" per se.

Elementals are commonly mentioned in grimoires dealing with alchemy and sorcery and are usually "called" by summoning.

exorcist - An exorcist (also called a witchman) is a person who casts out the devil. A priest, a monk, a healer, a shaman or other specially prepared or instructed person can be an exorcist. An exorcist is a person who performs the ridding of demons or other supernatural beings who have possessed a person, or (sometimes) a building or even an object.

Since the Council of Trent, "Exorcist" was one of the four minor orders in the ministry Roman Catholic Church, received after the tonsure. At the time this order was formally defined and confined exclusively to exorcism of the catechumen in the rite of Baptism, leaving exorcisms of demons to priests; but its role was later expanded. By the twentieth century, the order had become purely ceremonial. As a minor order, Exorcists wore the surplice. The office of Exorcist was not a part of the sacrament of Holy Orders but as a sacramental was instead first conferred on those who had the special charism to perform its duties and later to those studying for the priesthood.

The Exorcist order was suppressed during the reforms of the minor orders after the Second Vatican Council by Paul VI. It remains in societies which use the extraordinary form of the Latin Rite (also called "Ecclesia Dei communities"), such as the Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter. Some believe that attainment of the position of Acolyte in post-Council practices implies ordination to the minor orders which used to be below it, such as Exorcist and Porter, although this has not been officially defined (although Canon Law section 1009 does specifically state that the only "orders are the episcopate, the priesthood and the diaconate").

Recently, many dioceses have formally appointed priests to the function of Exorcist as a result of reaffirmation of exorcism as a necessary ritual by Pope John Paul II (who reportedly performed three exorcisms himself during his pontificate) and Pope Benedict XVI. Gabriele Amorth is the chief exorcist of the Diocese of Rome, and founder of the International Association of Exorcists.

"Exorcism" in Islam signifies ridding the human body of jinn possession (Christians would be familiar with the term demonic possession) by means of using halal (permissible) means. The halal means "centered around ruqya" and it essentially involves reciting the Quran in the presence of the possessed person. There are ahadith (plural of hadith) which claim that Muhammad did perform "exorcisms" - i.e., rid human beings suffering from jinn possession, and the use of ruqya (Quranic recitations) is not confined to getting rid of jinn but also to heal other ailments.

Here's a bit of a background: The jinn, along with human beings, are one of the two accountable creations that will have to render an account of their life on the Day of Judgement. Like human beings, they will either be successful or doomed in hell in the Hereafter, based on their deeds in their worldly lives. Therefore, just as in the case of human beings, there are good jinn who follow the right path and there are evil jinn who commit sins. Possessing a human being is an evil act, and jinn who engage in this behaviour are committing a wrong. Jinn also have different religions just like human beings (Jews, Christian, Muslims), and just as a Jewish, Christian or Muslim human may commit sins, so may a Jewish, Christian or Muslim jinn possess a human being.

In fact, Satan (Shaytan in Arabic, a.k.a. the devil, or beelzebub, in Arabic: azazeel) is a jinn who refused to follow God's order and prostrate to Adam. He was arrogant and felt that as he was created from fire (the material of origin for jinn) and Adam was created from clay he did not want to prostrate before Adam as he was commanded. For this arrogance and sin of his, he became an outcast and asked God to give him a respite till the Day of Judgement. His request was granted, and so began the age-old, ancient and eternal enmity between Satan and human beings. While Adam and Hawa (English: Eve) repented for falling into Satan's temptations to taste from the forbidden tree, Satan continues to try to corrupt humans with his sneaky whisperings and will continue to do so till the Last Day.

Some human beings, bent on evil, forge alliances with evil jinns, and therefore you have things like witchcraft, black magic, etc. As an extension of this corrupt and unnatural alliance, some humans resort to haram (forbidden) means to get rid of jinns. For example, a person suffering from jinn possession may end up going to a "healer" who may use means other than the permissible ruqya.

The jinn are mentioned in the Quran, and belief in jinn is an integral part of Islam: they are part of the unseen world (to human beings) created by God just as angels - they exist, but cannot be seen. Exorcisms using ruqya (permissible) are not stopped or blocked in Muslim countries such as Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan. It is in fact the haram (forbidden) means used by wizards, witches, sorcerers, and those indulging in the dark side that the authorities try to clamp down against and purge. For example, many charlatans offer love potions, love spells, freedom from jinn possession by using despicable means, and so it is the crackdown against these activities (which are anti-sharia and haram) that sometimes gets misinterpreted by others that Islamic countries and Islam do not recognize possession or "exorcism".

Finally it may be noted that the exorcism experiences reported in the Christian tradition are identical to those experienced and recorded by witnesses in an "Islamic exorcisms": after some moments of recitation of the Quran, the possessed human begins to talk in a very different voice and often scary voice (e.g. possessed man starting to speak in a different language or a very hoarse female voice when the female jinn starts speaking). The recitation of the Quran troubles and burns the jinn possessing the body, and so they start "coming clean" so to speak in an attempt to stop the pain they are feeling. Similarly, it is well known in the Christian tradition, that sometimes possessed persons (possessed by demons) would get physically hurt as the priests would hold them back, or restrain them, etc. but when they would recover, they would have no signs of pain or injuries and they would not remember anything from the exorcisms (the screaming, shouting they did, the evil voice they spoke in, etc.), it is the same thing in "Islamic exorcisms" : once the jinn leaves (Christians would say once the demons depart) the person comes around and does not recollect what went on during the exorcisms.

Beliefs and practices pertaining to the practice of exorcism are prominently connected with the ancient Dravidians in the south. Of the four Vedas (holy books of the Hindus), the Atharva Veda is said to contain the secrets related to magic and medicine. Many of the spells described in this book are for casting out demons and evil spirits. These beliefs are particularly strong and practiced in West Bengal, Orissa and southern states like Kerala.

The basic means of exorcism are the mantra and the yajna used in both Vedic and Tantric traditions.

Vaishnava traditions also employ a recitation of names of Narasimha and reading scriptures (notably Bhagavata Purana) aloud. According to Gita Mahatmya of Padma Purana, reading the 3rd, 7th and 8th chapter of Bhagavad Gita and mentally offering the result to departed persons helps them to get released from their ghostly situation. Kirtan, continuous playing of mantras, keeping scriptures and holy pictures (esp. of Narasimha) in the house, burning incense offered during a puja, sprinkling water from holy rivers, and blowing conches used in puja are other effective practices.

Main Vedic resource on ghost- and death-related information is Garuda Purana.

exorcism - (from Late Latin exorcismus, from Greek exorkizein - to adjure) is the practice of evicting demons, ghosts or other evil spiritual entities from a person or place which they are believed to have possessed. The practice is quite ancient and part of the belief system of many countries.

The person performing the exorcism, known as an exorcist, is often a member of the clergy, or an individual thought to be graced with special powers or skills. The exorcist may use prayers, and religious material, such as set formulas, gestures, symbols, icons, amulets, etc.. The exorcist often invokes God, Jesus and/or several different angels and archangels to intervene with the exorcism.

In general, possessed persons are not regarded as evil in themselves, nor wholly responsible for their actions. Therefore practitioners regard exorcism more as a cure than as a punishment. The mainstream rituals usually take this into account, making sure that there is no violence to the possessed, only that they be tied down if there is potential for violence.

extra-sensory perception (ESP) - the reception of information obtained outside of the normal five human senses.

false early arrival apparition - a phenomenon in which a person may hear or even see a person arrive typically shortly before the person actually arrives. Sometimes minutes sometimes hours or days in advance.

fear gorta -In Irish mythology, the fear gorta (Irish: Man of hunger / Man of famine; also known as the fear gortach) is a phantom of hunger resembling an emaciated human.

According to Yeats' Fairy and Folk Tales of the Irish Peasantry the fear gorta walks the earth during times of famine, seeking alms from passers-by. In this version the fear gorta can be a potential source of good luck for generous individuals. Harvey relates a myth that the fear gorta was a harbinger of famine during the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s, and that the spirit originally arises from a patch of hungry grass (féar gortach).

Frank's Box - Frank Sumption says he received instructions for building the device from disembodied entities. His first box was built in 2002, and he has made fewer than five dozen. While anyone can build one from his schematics, there seems to be something especially effective about the boxes hand-made by Sumption himself.

On line you can find information on how to construct one and people are even offering to make one for you for a small fee. Some even will charge you for asking questions or having a session for you to ask your questions of the dead who so apply want to talk to you.

So what is Frank's Box and how does it work? Is an inexpensive Ghost Box you can make and use. It is said to capture EVPs and stores your session in a .wav file for later review of sharing.

Frank’s Box allows for two-way communication with the other side, in a way that is more interactive than typical EVPs. Frank’s Box or the Ghost Box as it has come to be known is an electronic system, or method of sprit communication, also known as instrumental trans-communication, or ITC. Simply put Frank’s Box scans AM/FM and low band frequencies to create a noise matrix from which the dead — as well as other entities — can use to modulate for messages.

ghost - A ghost is usually said to be the apparition of a deceased person, frequently similar in appearance to that person, and usually encountered in places she or he frequented, the place of his or her death, or in association with the person's former belongings. The word "ghost" may also refer to the spirit or soul of a deceased person, or to any spirit or demon. Ghosts of animals have also been reported. Ghosts are often associated with hauntings.

According to a poll conducted in 2005 by the Gallup Organization about 32% of Americans believe in the existence of ghosts.

Ghost hunting- The process of investigating locations said to be haunted.

"Ghost hunter" taking reading with EMF meterTypically, a ghost "hunting party" will involve 4-8 individuals who work as a team to collect evidence of paranormal activity. Ghost hunters often employ electronic equipment of various types, such as; EMF Meters, digital thermometers, infrared, thermographic, and night vision cameras, handheld video cameras, digital audio recorders, and computers. Organized teams of ghost hunters are also called paranormal investigation teams.

Critics of ghost hunting say there is a total lack of scientifically testable and verifiable evidence in favor of the existence of ghosts, despite centuries of interest in the subject

Easy access to information on the world wide web, movies such as Ghost Busters, and TV shows, particularly Ghost Hunters, are thought to be partly responsible for the current boom in ghost hunting. One popular website for ghost hunting enthusiasts lists over 300 of these organizations throughout the United States and the United Kingdom. There are now hundreds of Internet message boards and web sites dedicated to the pursuit. Many of the sites declare themselves free of Ouija boards, which are frowned upon as unscientific among some paranormal enthusiasts. Along with ghost tracking tips, the sites discuss everything from high-tech equipment to analysis of investigations. Many feature ghost photos and videos, often appearing as blurry mist or blobs of light, called “orbs” by insiders. Similarly, audio recordings are referred to as "EVPs," or electronic voice phenomena, sometimes sounding like garbles and warbles amid background noise.

Scores of small businesses selling ghost-hunting equipment, ghost investigation services, and even ghost counseling, are booming outside of their prime season, Halloween. Several companies recently introduced new devices billed as ghost detectors, along with the traditional electromagnetic field detectors, white noise generators, and infrared motion sensors. The paranormal boom is such that some small ghost-hunting related businesses are enjoying increased profits through podcast and web site advertising, books, DVDs, videos, and other commercial enterprises.

In the U.S., the popularity of ghost hunting has led to some property damage and injuries, according to news sources. Unaware that a "spooky home" in Worthington, Ohio was occupied, a group of teenagers went to check it out. The homeowner fired shots to scare off the trespassers, shooting a girl in the head. Another group of teenagers in Peru, Maine admitted to accidentally starting a fire while hunting for ghosts inside of a former wood mill. Trespassing or vandalizing ghost hunters have also been arrested in cemeteries in Illinois, Connecticut, and other states.

Among ghost hunters, some are also devotees of urban exploration, a growing hobby where enthusiasts venture into abandoned structures such as hospitals, asylums, and sanatoriums.

While interest in the paranormal heats up, so does the competition between ghost hunting organizations. As many groups scramble for publicity, rivalry and feuds are common. Commercially-active groups such as TAPS (The Atlantic Paranormal Society) and IGHS (International Ghost Hunters Society) often attempt to discredit the other's legitimacy.

Ghost hunters use a variety of tools and techniques to investigate alleged paranormal activity. While there is no universal acceptance among ghost hunters of the following methodologies, a number of these are commonly utilized by ghost hunting groups.

Hand-held infrared temperature sensor of the type used by some "ghost hunters"Still and video photography - using infrared, digital, night vision, and even disposable film cameras to capture evidence of possible visual manifestations, such as orbs, mist, apparitions, and ectoplasm.
EMF measurement - using electromagnetic field meters to detect possible unexplained magnetic fields which some attribute to the presence of ghosts and spirits.
Temperature measurement - using infrared, and thermal cameras, imaging video cameras, and/or hand-held infrared surface and ambient temperature sensors to detect changes in the environment, such as "cold spots", which some believe accompany paranormal activity.
Digital and analog audio recording - to capture anomalous audio, including voices and sounds that may be interpreted as electronic voice phenomena, which some theorize are attempts at communication by paranormal entities.
Geiger counter - to measure fluctuations in radiation which some believe will point to a disturbance in spirit energy.
K2 meter - to "communicate" with an alleged ghost.
Negative ion detectors - to detect an excess of negative ions which some feel are associated with paranormal activity.
Infrared and/or ultrasonic motion sensors - to detect possible anomalous movement within a given area, or to assist in creating a controlled environment where any human movement is detected.
Air quality monitoring equipment - to assess the levels of gases such a carbon monoxide which are thought contribute to reports of paranormal activity. (Also see carbon monoxide poisoning).
Infrasound monitoring equipment - to assess the level of sound vibrations below 20Hz which is thought to contribute to reports of paranormal activity.

Non-objective "equipment"
Dowsing rods - usually constructed of brass and bent into an L-shape, dowsing rods may be used by those who feel they help indicate the presence of ghosts and spirits.
Psychics - trance mediums or "sensitive" individuals thought to have the ability to identify and make contact with spiritual entities. (This practice is considered controversial among groups that prefer a scientific approach)

Demonologists, Wiccans, Healers - individuals who may say prayers, give blessings, or perform rituals for the purpose of cleansing a location of alleged ghosts, demons, poltergeists, or "negative energy". (Also considered controversial among groups that prefer a scientific approach)

Interviews - to collect testimony and stories from witnesses, often compiled into a computer database for further study. Some groups also research the history of a location in hopes of learning more about past events and individuals associated with the site.

Lights-Out Method - Many ghost hunters prefer to conduct their investigations during "peak" evening hours (midnight to 4 a.m.) when most paranormal activity is said to occur. This time period seems to have been put forth in the 1970s and was supported by Lorraine Warren. Most paranormal groups favor the ‘lights out’ or black-out conditions, theorizing that it’s easier to see a possible apparition in the dark since it requires less energy to manifest. According to the theory, spirits/ghosts that attempt to manifest themselves (become corporeal or material-visible) do so by drawing energy from all surrounding sources of both electric and magnetic waves/frequencies. This is one of the reasons why paranormal groups utilize the Gauss (or Electromagnetic Frequency (EMF)) meter. By drawing these energies from surrounding sources, they are enabling themselves to be seen in this plane of existence. A popular thought among ghost hunters is that any equipment that behaves erratically (temporary and inexplicable battery drains, electronic units that shut down, flickering lights or other unexplainable anomalies) point to the presence of a spirit/ghost that is attempting to materialize. Some have even explained that people who experience nausea or dizziness are being subsequently affected by these manifesting spirits/ghosts due to the fact that our brain's synapses (all electrically based) are misfiring and causing an equilibrium change that affects the individual's perception. Additionally, some paranormal investigators point to a disturbance of their equipment by the presence of fluourescent or other types of lighting. Critics of the lights-out method of investigation point to the lack of evidence regarding the apparition-occurrence-to-darkness ratio, indicating that, historically, 80% of full-body apparitions have been witnessed during daylight hours. Daytime investigations, they claim, will produce markedly better results since the video and photographic evidence will be much clearer and more concise for others who scrutinize such evidence. Some also experiment in wavelengths on the fringe of human vision including red and ultraviolet light.

ghost hunter certification - Ghost Hunter Certification Home Study Course. Are you SERIOUSLY looking for a way to learn more about ghost research? Would you like to know how to investigate haunted houses and document paranormal activity? Have you considered becoming a certified ghost hunter? Then Patti Starr’s “Certified Ghost Hunter” course is for you. Certified Ghost Hunter Home Study Course

The purpose of this course is to present an overview of research into ghosts and hauntings. The course is designed for anyone with the desire to learn about, find and document paranormal activity of ghosts.

"Ghost Hunter Certification Home Study Course" by Patti Starr. Includes: 1) Investigative forms: * Interview witnesses *Record investigations * Permission Release* Usage of Equipment 2) Report Forms for three completed ghost investigations 3) Instructions to complete three completed ghost investigations

"E.L.F. Zone, EMF Meter" for a limited time only this is included FREE with the Ghost Hunter Certification Home Study Course. A favorite among beginner ghost hunters. Three LED lights which are easy to see in the dark indicate field strength

You will also receive email support through assignment of three field investigations, (help with use of equipment such as cameras, recorders, and meters). Once the completed assignments and exam for Certification have been sent you will receive a diploma of graduation as “Certified Ghost Hunter”. You will also receive a membership package to join Ghost Chasers International as a remote member.

ghost hoax buster- The advent of the Internet has facilitated the proliferation of ghost filled urban legends. At the same time, however, it has allowed more efficient investigation of this social paranormal belief phenomenon.

Discussing, tracking, and analyzing ghost filled urban legends has become a popular pursuit. It is the topic of the Usenet newsgroup, alt.folklore.urban, and several web sites, most notably snopes.com.

The United States has many paranormal groups like TAPSThis! That has a service called Ghost Hoaxbusters that deals with all sorts of computer-distributed hoaxes and legends that locations and individuals try to pass off as ghost photos and their ghost stories and paranormal adventures.

Television shows such as Urban Legends, Beyond Belief: Fact or Fiction, and later Mostly True Stories: Urban Legends Revealed feature re-enactments of urban legends detailing the accounts of the tales and (typically) later in the show, these programs reveal any factual basis they may have.

Since 2003 the Discovery Channel TV show MythBusters has tried to prove or disprove urban legends by attempting to test them or reproduce them using the scientific method. Ans Showtimes Penn & Teller, Bullshit.

ghost photos- a reported as real photo of a suspected ghost. Anomalous substances in an image. ranging from orbs or stange steaks of lights, blurs and faces.

ghost tour - ghost tours, ghost walk, haunted tour. or unique night-Day walking or even investigative in nature. They also include bus tours Often telling of historic hauntings and urban legends taking in several supposedly haunted places and taking in a lot of the spooky history of the city they are located in. The total duration of the tour is is not approximate the can last for 30 minutes to 2 hours or more.

Some tours will actually take you inside of haunted locations, buildings, cemeteries, haunted battlefields, haunted public places and private homes. Most are located in the central area's of major cites around the world.

Many today actually offer interactive tours where the curious can actually hunt for real ghosts.

haunted house is defined as a house that is believed to be a center for supernatural occurrences or paranormal phenomena. A haunted house building may allegedly contain ghosts, poltergeists, or even malevolent entities such as demons.

The commercial ghost hunting ghost pranormal investigation or research tour conducted by a local guide or tour operator who is often a member of a local ghost hunting or paranormal investigation group. Since both tour operator and 'haunted' site owners share profits of such enterprises (admissions typically range between $50 and $100 per person), some believe the 'haunted' claims are exaggerated or fabricated in order to increase attendance. The city of New Orleans, Louisiana is thought to be the #1 US city for "ghost tours" having more than five dozen at last count post hurricane Katrina.

haint - A ghost is usually said to be the apparition of a deceased person, frequently similar in appearance to that person, and usually encountered in places she or he frequented, the place of his or her death, or in association with the person's former belongings. The word "haint" may also refer to the spirit or soul of a deceased person, or to any spirit or demon. Haints are often associated with hauntings.

According to a poll conducted in 2005 by the Gallup Organization about 32% of Americans believe in the existence of ghosts

haunted houses - Often regarded as being inhabited by spirits of deceased who may have been former residents or were familiar with the property. Supernatural activity inside homes is said to be mainly associated with violent or tragic events in the building's past such as murder, accidental death, or suicide — sometimes in the recent or ancient past. Amongst many cultures and religions it is believed that the essence of a being such as the 'soul' continues to exist. Some philosophical and religious views argue that the 'spirits' of those who have died have not 'passed over' and are trapped inside the property where their memories and energy is strong. Entities which are said to 'haunt' homes are often believed to make noises, appear as apparitions, and shift or launch physical objects. This is sometimes manifested into 'poltergeist activity'; poltergeist meaning 'noisy spirit'. Traditionally an exorcism is the method used to remove unwelcome spirits from the property.

Legends about haunted houses have long appeared in literature. Haunting is used as a plot device in gothic or horror fiction or, more lately, paranormal-based fiction. Roman-era authors Plautus, Pliny the Younger, and Lucian wrote stories about haunted houses, and more modern authors from Henry James to Stephen King have featured them in their writings. Haunted castles and mansions are common in gothic literature such as Dracula.

The actual structure of a fictional haunted house can be anything from a decaying European feudal castle to a newly occupied suburban ranch-style house of fairly recent construction, although older buildings tend to be more commonly used.

In Stambovsky v. Ackley, the Supreme Court of New York, Appellate Division ruled that a seller must disclose that a house has a reputation for being haunted when there is a fiduciary relationship or in cases of fraud or misrepresentation,because such a reputation impairs the value of the house:

In the case at bar, defendant seller deliberately fostered the public belief that her home was possessed. Having undertaken to inform the public at large, to whom she has no legal relationship, about the supernatural occurrences on her property, she may be said to owe no less a duty to her contract vendee

haunted locations - Are sites of reported ghost activity. The reports of these hauntings are often referred to as ghostlore. Ghostlore is fueled by history and legends and is a part of folklore. These accounts can be subjective in nature and there is no commonly accepted objective evidence that ghosts or similar phenomena exist.

haunting - Hauntings: Phenomena attributed to ghosts, also spirits, fairies, angels, daemons and demons. Ectoplasm (paranormal).

hungry ghost and hungry month - A hungry ghost is a kind of ghost associated with hunger common to many religions. Recent stories involving dead characters stuck in 'ironic' hells often allude to them. Hungry ghost month is the seventh month of the lunar year. in the western world always the month of August.

Taoists believe that hungry ghosts are ghosts of people that did not find everything they need to survive in their after life. If a ghost passes on, but does not have enough food, water, shelter, etc., it will come back into the world of the living to feed on the living. They will scare you, and then they will feed on your energy and fear. Taoists also believe that the way a building is made will determine how attracted hungry ghosts or any ghost is to going there. Taoists get rid of these hungry ghosts by performing a ritual. They will pray/chant and offer food and other things to the hungry ghosts, so they will have what they need to survive and move on to their next life.

In Tibetan Buddhism Hungry Ghosts (Sanskrit: pretas) have their own realm depicted on the Bhavacakra and are represented as teardrop or paisley-shaped with bloated stomachs and necks too thin to pass food such that attempting to eat is also incredibly painful. Some are described as having "mouths the size of a needle's eye and a stomach the size of a mountain". This is a metaphor for people futilely attempting to fulfill their illusory physical desires.

According to the History of Buddhism, as elements of Chinese Buddhism entered a dialogue with Indian Buddhism in the Tibetan Plateau, this synthesis is evident in the compassion rendered in the form of blessed remains of food, etc., offered to the pretas in rites such as Ganachakra.

In China
Hungry ghosts also appear in Chinese ancestor worship. is "the realm of hungry ghosts". Some Chinese believe that the ghosts of their ancestors return to their houses at a certain time of the year, hungry and ready to eat. A festival is held to honor the hungry ancestor ghosts and food and drink is put out to satisfy their needs.

When Buddhism entered China, it encountered stiff opposition from the Confucian adherents to ancestor worship. Under these pressures, ancestor worship was combined with the Hindu/Buddhist concept of the hungry ghost. Eventually, the Hungry Ghost Festival became an important part of Chinese Buddhist life.

In Japan
In Japanese Buddhism, two such creatures exist: the gaki and the jikininki. Gaki are the spirits of jealous or greedy people who, as punishment for their mortal vices, have been cursed with an insatiable hunger for a particular substance or object. Traditionally, this is something repugnant or humiliating, such as human corpses or feces, though in more recent legends, it may be virtually anything, no matter how bizarre. Jikininki ("man-eating ghosts") are the spirits of greedy, selfish or impious individuals who are cursed after death to seek out and eat human corpses. They do this at night, scavenging for newly dead bodies and food offerings left for the dead. They sometimes also loot the corpses they eat for valuables, which they use to bribe local officials to leave them in peace. Nevertheless, jikininki lament their condition and hate their repugnant cravings for dead human flesh.

In Hinduism
In Hindu tradition, much as described in the Book of Enoch, hungry ghosts are spirit-beings driven by the passionate objects of their desire. Very detailed information about ghosts is given in Garuda Purana.

The Book of Enoch (an apocryphal book of the Bible whose complete version has only recently been discovered as a part of the Dead Sea Scrolls) describes the fall of the Watchers and the demons who might be the fallen angels (Watchers) themselves, or the offspring of the union of the Watchers and mankind. These creatures are said to wander the world in the form of evil spirits—endlessly yearning for food though they have no mouths to eat—endlessly thirsty though they cannot drink. Endlessly seeking these things from the living, the evil spirits seek to possess weak-willed men and women to dispossess their spirits and to take over their bodies so as to partake of food and drink.

At the religious beliefs of Ancient Rome, hungry ghosts of a family's ancestors figured in the festival of Lemuria; it was the duty of the pater familias to appease the larvæ of his ancestors with an offering of beans. The Balkan tradition of the vampire is another malevolent sort of undead revenant, a corpse supernaturally animated which seeks to feed on the blood of the living.

illuminance - In photometry, illuminance is the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area. It is a measure of the intensity of the incident light, wavelength-weighted by the luminosity function to correlate with human brightness perception. Similarly, luminous emittance is the luminous flux per unit area emitted from a surface. Luminous emittance is also known as luminous exitance.

In SI derived units, these are both measured in lux (lx) or lumens per square metre (cd·sr·m−2). In the CGS system, the unit of illuminance is the phot. One phot is equal to 10,000 lux. The foot-candle is a non-metric unit of illuminance that is used in photography.

Illuminance was formerly often called brightness, but this leads to confusion with other uses of the word. "Brightness" should never be used for quantitative description, but only for nonquantitative references to physiological sensations and perceptions of light.

The human eye is capable of seeing somewhat more than a 2 trillion-fold range: The presence of white objects is somewhat discernible under starlight, at 5×10−5 lux, while at the bright end, it is possible to read large text at 108 lux, or about 1,000 times that of direct sunlight, although this can be very uncomfortable and cause long-lasting afterimages.

incubus -In Western medieval legend, an incubus (plural incubi) is a demon in male form supposed to lie upon sleepers, especially women, in order to have sexual intercourse with them. It is believed that this was done in order to spawn other incubi. The incubus drains energy from the woman on whom it performs sexual intercourse in order to sustain itself, and some sources indicate that it may be identified by its unnaturally cold penis. Religious tradition holds that repeated intercourse with such a spirit by either males or females (the female version of the incubus is called a succubus) may result in the deterioration of health, or even death.

Infrared Cameras & Thermal Imaging ~ FLIR - A thermographic camera, sometimes called a FLIR (Forward Looking InfraRed), or an infrared camera less specifically, is a device that forms an image using infrared radiation, similar to a common camera that forms an image using visible light. Instead of the 450–750 nanometer range of the visible light camera, infrared cameras operate in wavelengths as long as 14,000 nm (14 µm). Please also see: Investigate them here now!

Infrared energy is just one part of the electromagnetic spectrum that encompasses radiation from gamma rays, x-rays, ultra violet, a thin region of visible light, infrared, terahertz waves, microwaves, and radio waves. These are all related and differentiated in the length of their wave (wavelength). All objects emit a certain amount of black body radiation as a function of their temperatures. Generally speaking, the higher an object's temperature is, the more infrared radiation as black-body radiation it emits. A special camera can detect this radiation in a way similar to an ordinary camera does visible light. It works even in total darkness because ambient light level does not matter. This makes it useful for rescue operations in smoke-filled buildings and underground.

Images from infrared cameras tend to be monochromatic because the cameras are generally designed with only a single type of sensor responding to single wavelength range of infrared radiation. Color cameras require a more complex construction to differentiate wavelength and color has less meaning outside of the normal visible spectrum because the differing wavelengths do not map uniformly into the system of color vision used by humans. Sometimes these monochromatic images are displayed in pseudo-color, where changes in color are used rather than changes in intensity to display changes in the signal. This is useful because although humans have much greater dynamic range in intensity detection than color overall, the ability to see fine intensity differences in bright areas is fairly limited. This technique is called density slicing.

For use in temperature measurement the brightest (warmest) parts of the image are customarily colored white, intermediate temperatures reds and yellows, and the dimmest (coolest) parts blue. A scale should be shown next to a false color image to relate colors to temperatures. Their resolution is considerably lower than of optical cameras, mostly only 160x120 or 320x240 pixels. Thermographic cameras are much more expensive than their visible-spectrum counterparts, and higher-end models are often deemed as dual-use and export-restricted.

In uncooled detectors the temperature differences at the sensor pixels are minute; a 1 °C difference at the scene induces just a 0.03 °C difference at the sensor. The pixel response time is also fairly slow, at the range of tens of milliseconds.

Thermal imaging photography finds many other uses. For example, firefighters use it to see through smoke, find persons, and localize hotspots of fires. With thermal imaging, power line maintenance technicians locate overheating joints and parts, a telltale sign of their failure, to eliminate potential hazards. Where thermal insulation becomes faulty, building construction technicians can see heat leaks to improve the efficiencies of cooling or heating air-conditioning. Thermal imaging cameras are also installed in some luxury cars to aid the driver, the first being the 2000 Cadillac DeVille. Some physiological activities, particularly responses, in human beings and other warm-blooded animals can also be monitored with thermographic imaging. Cooled infrared cameras can also be found at most major astronomy research telescopes.

Fluke TI-20 Technical Details

* Temperature Range: -10 Degree C to 350 Degree C (14 Degree F to 662 Degree F)
* Field of View: 20 Degree x 15 Degree
* Optical Resolution: 120x96 Pixels
* Storage Device: Flash Memory
* Data Storage: 50 Images

Thermal Imager Fluke Corporation is the world leader in the manufacture, distribution and service of electronic test tools and software. Since its founding in 1948, Fluke has helped define and grow a unique technology market, providing testing and troubleshooting capabilities that have grown to mission critical status in manufacturing and service industries. From industrial electronic installation, maintenance and service, to precision measurement and quality control, Fluke tools help keep business and industry around the globe up and running. Fluke’s Ti-20Thermal Imagers brings the power of diagnostic capabilities of infrared thermal imaging technology within reach of wider range of industrial applications. The unit is fully radiometric for detailed temperature analysis and tracking of critical components. This thermal imager device is easy to use with the large color LCD display uncluttered image with data and routing instructions. The operation of the device is simple; it’s one-handed, point and shoot, captures the image. Plus the screen has step-by-step routing instructions. The included accessories for this thermal imager is a hard carrying case, two rechargeable battery packs, a soft-side carrying case, rechargeable battery pack, AC/DC power adapter, USB communication cable, InsideIR reporting and analysis software, an interactive CQ with training materials and a getting started guide.

In infrared photography, the film or image sensor used is sensitive to infrared light. The part of the spectrum used is referred to as near-infrared to distinguish it from far-infrared, which is the domain of thermal imaging. Wavelengths used for photography range from about 700 nm to about 900 nm. Usually an "infrared filter" is used; this lets infrared (IR) light pass through to the camera, but blocks all or most of the visible light spectrum (the filter thus looks black or deep red).

When these filters are used together with infrared-sensitive film or sensors, very interesting "in-camera effects" can be obtained; false-color or black-and-white images with a dreamlike or sometimes lurid appearance known as the "Wood Effect," an effect mainly caused by foliage (such as tree leaves and grass) strongly reflecting in the same way visible light is reflected from snow[1]. There is a small contribution from chlorophyll fluorescence, but this is extremely small and is not the real cause of the brightness seen in infrared photographs. The effect is named after the infrared photography pioneer Robert W. Wood, and not after the material wood, which does not glow under infrared.

The other attributes of infrared photographs include very dark skies and penetration of atmospheric haze, caused by reduced Rayleigh scattering and Mie scattering, respectively, compared to visible light. The dark skies, in turn, result in less infrared light in shadows and dark reflections of those skies from water, and clouds will stand out strongly. These wavelengths also penetrate a few millimeters into skin and give a milky look to portraits, although eyes often look black.

ITC - Instrumental transcommunication - A form of mediumship using electrical devices. The use of an Olivus, Franks Box Televsion or videp recodings from transmited paranormal waves or activity.

Kirlian photography - refers to a form of photogram made with a high voltage. It is named after Semyon Kirlian, who in 1939 accidentally discovered that if an object on a photographic plate is connected to a source of high voltage, small corona discharges (created by the strong electric field at the edges of the object) create an image on the photographic plate.

Kirlian's work, from 1939 onward, involved an independent rediscovery of a phenomenon and technique variously called "electrography", "electrophotography", and "corona discharge photography". The Kirlian technique is contact photography, in which the subject is in direct contact with a film placed upon a metal plate charged with high voltage, high frequency electricity.

The underlying physics (which makes xerographic copying possible) was explored as early as 1777 by Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (see Lichtenberg figures). Later workers in the field included Nikola Tesla; various other individuals explored the effect in the later 19th and early 20th centuries.

Kirlian made controversial claims that the image he was studying might be compared with the human aura. An experiment advanced as evidence of energy fields generated by living entities involves taking Kirlian contact photographs of a picked leaf at set periods, its gradual withering being said to correspond with a decline in the strength of the aura. However it may simply be that the leaf loses moisture and becomes less electrically conductive, causing a gradual weakening of the electric field at the drier edges of the leaf. In some experiments, if a section of a leaf was torn away after the first photograph, a faint image of the missing section would remain when a second photograph was taken. The Archives of American Art Journal of the Smithsonian Institution published a leading article with reproductions of images of this phenomenon.James Randi has suggested that this effect was due to contamination of the glass plates, which were reused for both the "before" and "after" photographs

L- field - The L-field is a name proposed by the Yale Professor of Anatomy Harold Saxton Burr for medicine since it exhibited measurable qualities that might be used in prognosis of disease, mood and viability. The voltage measurements he used are not in doubt but "the scientific community has all but ignored" Burr's term and his interpretation of the field as a blueprint-like mold for all life.

Those having produced notable research along the same lines include Becker, Marino and Selden, Lund and Athenstaedt. However, progress is currently being made in the use of electromagnetic therapy to aid the healing of broken bones.

levitation - is the process by which an object is suspended against gravity, in a stable position, without visible physical contact.

It is also a conjuring trick, apparently raising a human being without any physical aid. The illusion can be produced by clever mechanics, lighting arrangements and other means.

ley lines - Hypothetical alignments of a number of places of geographical interest, such as ancient monuments and megaliths. Their existence was suggested in 1921 by the amateur archaeologist Alfred Watkins, whose book The Old Straight Track brought the alignments to the attention of the wider public.

The existence of alignments between sites is easily demonstrated. However, the causes of these alignments are disputed. There are several major areas of interpretation.

Archaeological: A new area of archaeological study, archaeogeodesy, examines geodesy as practiced in prehistoric time, and as evidenced by archaeological remains. One major aspect of modern geodesy is surveying. As interpreted by geodesy, the so-called ley lines can be the product of ancient surveying, property markings, or commonly travelled pathways. Numerous societies, ancient and modern, employ straight lines between points of use; archaeologists have documented these traditions. Modern surveying also results in placement of constructs in lines on the landscape. It is reasonable to expect human constructs and activity areas to reflect human use of lines.

Cultural: Many cultures use straight lines across the landscape. In South America, such lines often are directed towards mountain peaks; the Nazca lines are a famous example of lengthy lines made by ancient cultures. Straight lines connect ancient pyramids in Mexico; today, modern roads built on the ancient roads deviate around the huge pyramids. The Chaco culture of Northwestern New Mexico cut stairs into sandstone cliffs to facilitate keeping roads straight.

New Age: The ley lines and their intersection points are believed by some people[who?] to resonate a special psychic or mystical energy, often including elements such as geomancy, dowsing or UFOs, stating that, for instance, UFOs travel along ley lines (in the way that one might observe that cars use roads and highways). This belief postulates that points on lines have electrical or magnetic forces associated with them.

Skeptical: Skeptics of the existence of ley lines often classify them as pseudoscience. Such skeptics tend to doubt that ley lines were planned or made by ancient cultures, and argue that apparent ley lines can be readily explained without resorting to extraordinary or pseudoscientific ideas.

light meter or lux meter - A light meter is a device used to measure the amount of light. In photography, a light meter is often used to determine the proper exposure for a photograph. Typically a light meter will include a computer, either digital or analogue, which allows the photographer to determine which shutter speed and f-number should be selected for an optimum exposure, given a certain lighting situation and film speed.

Light meters are also used in the fields of cinematography and scenic design, in order to determine the optimum light level for a scene. They are used in the general field of lighting, where they can help to reduce the amount of waste light used in the home, light pollution outdoors, and plant growing to ensure proper light levels.

The earliest type of light meters were called extinction meters and contained a numbered or lettered row of neutral density filters of increasing density. The photographer would position the meter in front of their subject and note the filter with the greatest density that still allowed incident light to pass through. The letter or number corresponding to the filter was used as an index into a chart of appropriate aperture and shutter speed combinations for a given film speed.

Extinction meters suffered from the problem that they depended on the light sensitivity of the human eye (which can vary from person to person) and subjective interpretation.

Later meters removed the human element and relied on technologies incorporating selenium, CdS, and silicon photodetectors.

Selenium and silicon light meters use sensors that are photovoltaic: they generate a voltage proportional to light exposure. Selenium sensors generate enough voltage for direct connection to a meter; they need no battery to operate and this made them very convenient in completely mechanical cameras. Selenium sensors however cannot measure low light accurately (ordinary lightbulbs can take them close to their limits) and are altogether unable to measure very low light, such as candlelight, moonlight, starlight etc. Silicon sensors need an amplification circuit and require a power source such as batteries to operate. CdS light meters use a sensor based on photoresistance, i.e. their electrical resistance changes proportionately to light exposure. These also require a battery to operate. Most modern light meters use silicon or CdS sensors. They indicate the exposure either with a needle galvanometer or on an LCD screen.

Many modern consumer still and video cameras include a built-in meter that measures a scene-wide light level and are able to make an approximate measure of appropriate exposure based on that. Photographers working with controlled lighting and cinematographers use handheld light meters to precisely measure the light falling on various parts of their subjects and use suitable lighting to produce the desired exposure levels.

There are two general types of light meters: reflected-light and incident-light. Reflected-light meters measure the light reflected by the scene to be photographed. All in-camera meters are reflected-light meters. Reflected-light meters are calibrated to show the appropriate exposure for “average” scenes. An unusual scene with a preponderance of light colors or specular highlights would have a higher reflectance; a reflected-light meter taking a reading would incorrectly compensate for the difference in reflectance and lead to underexposure. Badly underexposed sunset photos are common exactly because of this effect: the brightness of setting sun fools the camera's light meter and, unless the in-camera logic or the photographer take care to compensate, the picture will be grossly underexposed and dull.

This pitfall is avoided by incident-light meters which measure the amount of light falling on the subject using an integrating sphere (usually, a translucent hemispherical plastic dome is used to approximate this) placed on top of the light sensor. Because the incident-light reading is independent of the subject's reflectance, it is less likely to lead to incorrect exposures for subjects with unusual average reflectance. Taking an incident-light reading requires placing the meter at the subject's position and pointing it in the general direction of the camera, something not always achievable in practice, e.g., in landscape photography where the subject is at infinity.

Another way to avoid under- or over-exposure for subjects with unusual reflectance is to use a spot meter: a reflected-light meter that measures light in a very tight cone, typically with a one degree angle. An experienced photographer can take multiple readings over the shadows, midrange and highlights of the scene to determine optimal exposure, using systems like the Zone System. Many modern cameras include sophisticated multi-segment metering systems that measure the luminance of different parts of the scene to determine the optimal exposure. When using a film whose spectral sensitivity is not a good match to that of the light meter, for example orthochromatic black-and-white or infrared film, the meter may require special filters and re-calibration to match the sensitivity of the film.

There are other types of specialized photographic light meters. Flash meters are used in flash photography to verify correct exposure. Color meters are used where high fidelity in color reproduction is required. Densitometers are used in photographic reproduction.

Calibration of cameras with internal meters is covered by ISO 2721:1982; nonetheless, many manufacturers specify (though seldom state) exposure calibration in terms of K, and many calibration instruments (e.g., Kyoritsu-Arrowin multi-function camera testers ) use the specified K to set the test parameters.

Photomultiplier tubes for detecting light at very low levels. Photomultiplier tubes (photomultipliers or PMTs for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. These detectors multiply the current produced by incident light by as much as 100 million times (i.e., 160 dB), in multiple dynode stages, enabling (for example) individual photons to be detected when the incident flux of light is very low.

The combination of high gain, low noise, high frequency response, and large area of collection has earned photomultipliers an essential place in nuclear and particle physics, astronomy, medical diagnostics including blood tests, medical imaging, motion picture film scanning (telecine), and high-end image scanners known as drum scanners. Semiconductor devices, particularly avalanche photodiodes, are alternatives to photomultipliers; however, photomultipliers are uniquely well-suited for applications requiring low-noise, high-sensitivity detection of light that is imperfectly collimated. While photomultipliers are extraordinarily sensitive and moderately efficient, research is still underway to create a photon-counting light detection device that is much more than 99% efficient. Such a detector is of interest for applications related to quantum information and quantum cryptography. Elements of photomultiplier technology, when integrated differently, are the basis of night vision devices.

medium - an individual who can communicate with spirits. The word suggests that the medium acts as a midway point, halfway between the worlds of the living and the dead.

Notable mediums have included: Derek Acorah, Rosemary Altea, Sathya Sai Baba, Clifford Bias, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Emma Hardinge Britten, Sylvia Browne, Yvonne Brown, Edgar Cayce, Andrew Jackson Davis, Jeane Dixon, Allison DuBois, John Edward, Danielle Egnew, Divaldo Pereira Franco, Colin Fry, Count Chocula, Elizabeth "Betty" Grant, Peter Haviland, Matt Hendrix , Esther Hicks, Daniel Dunglas Home, Indridi Indridason, Richard Ireland, JZ Knight, Joseph Kony, Lekhraj Kripalani, Mr. Pibb, Judy Myers Margaret McElroy, Mickey Of Miami, Hirday Mohini, Eusapia Palladino, Paschal Beverly Randolph, I.P. Freily, Jane Roberts, James Van Praagh, Reese Smith, Stanislawa Tomczyk, David Wells, Lisa Williams, Chico Xavier, M. Lamar Keene John Wattam, Serge J. Grandbois, Jorge Olguín, Lisa Lee Harp Waugh

mental mediumship - "Mental mediumship" is communication of spirits with a medium by telepathy. The medium mentally "hears," "sees," and/or feels messages from spirits, then, directly or with the help of a spirit guide, passes the information on to the message's recipient(s). When a medium is doing a "reading" for a particular person, that person is known as the "sitter."

necromancer- Some one who calls up the dead or spirits to speak to and question using ancient ritualls. Early necromancy is likely related to shamanism, which calls upon spirits such as the ghosts of ancestors. Classical necromancers addressed the dead in "a mixture of high-pitch squeaking and low droning", comparable to the trance-state mutterings of shamans.

In modern time necromancy is used as a more general term to describe the art (or manipulation) of death, and generally implies a magical connotation. Modern séances, channeling and Spiritualism verge on necromancy when the invoked spirits are asked to reveal future events. Necromancy may also be presented as sciomancy, a branch of theurgic magic.

Necromancy is extensively practiced in Quimbanda and is sometimes seen in other African traditions such as voodoo and in santeria, though once a person is possessed by a spirit in the yoruba tradition he cannot rise to a higher spiritual position such as that of a babalawo, but this should not be regarded as a modern tradition, in fact it predates most necromantic practices.

An Encyclopedia of Occultism states:

The art is of almost universal usage. Considerable difference of opinion exists among modern adepts as to the exact methods to be properly pursued in the necromantic art, and it must be borne in mind the necromancy, which in the Middle Ages was called sorcery, shades into modern spiritualistic practice. There is no doubt, however, that necromancy is the touchstone of occultism, for if, after careful preparation the adept can carry through to a successful issue, the raising of the soul from the other world, he has proved the value of his art.

Lisa Lee Harp Waugh Is considered by many as The Great American Necromancer of Today.

necromancy - Necromancy is a form of divination in which the practitioner seeks to summon "operative spirits" or "spirits of divination", for multiple reasons, from spiritual protection to wisdom. The word necromancy derives from the Greek(nekrós), "dead", and (manteía), "divination".

However, since the Renaissance, necromancy has come to be associated more broadly with black magic and demon-summoning in general, sometimes losing its earlier, more specialized meaning. By popular etymology, nekromantia became nigromancy "black arts", and Johannes Hartlieb (1456) lists demonology in general under the heading. Eliphas Levi, in his book Dogma et Ritual, states that necromancy is the evoking of aerial bodies (aeromancy).

night vision - Night vision is the ability to see in a dark environment. Whether by biological or technological means, night vision is made possible by a combination of two approaches: sufficient spectral range, and sufficient intensity range. Humans have poor night vision compared to many animals, in part because the human eye lacks a tapetum lucidum.

Spectral range

Night-useful spectral range techniques make the viewer sensitive to types of light that would be invisible to a human observer. Human vision is confined to a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum called visible light. Enhanced spectral range allows the viewer to take advantage of non-visible sources of electromagnetic radiation (such as near-infrared or ultraviolet radiation). Some animals can see well into the infrared and/or ultraviolet compared to humans.
Intensity range

Sufficient intensity range is simply the ability to see with very small quantities of light. Although the human visual system can, in theory, detect single photons under ideal conditions, the neurological noise filters limit sensitivity to a few tens of photons, even in ideal conditions.

Many animals have better night vision than humans do, the result of one or more differences in the morphology and anatomy of their eyes. These include having a larger eyeball, a larger lens, a larger optical aperture (the pupils may expand to the physical limit of the eyelids), more rods than cones (or rods exclusively) in the retina, a tapetum lucidum, and improved neurological filtering.

Enhanced intensity range is achieved via technological means through the use of an image intensifier, gain multiplication CCD, or other very low-noise and high-sensitivity array of photodetectors.

night glasses or night vision glasses - are telescopes or binoculars with a large diameter objective. Large lenses can gather and concentrate light, thus intensifying light with purely optical means and enabling the user to see better in the dark than with naked eye alone. Often night glasses also have a fairly large exit pupil of 7 mm or more to let all gathered light into the user's eye. However, many people can't take advantage of this because of the limited dilation of the human pupil. To overcome this, soldiers were sometimes issued atropine eye drops to dilate pupils. Before the introduction of image intensifiers, night glasses were the only method of night vision, and thus were widely utilized, especially at sea. Second World War era night glasses usually had a lens diameter of 56 mm or more with magnification of seven or eight. Major drawbacks of night glasses are their large size and weight.

Active infrared night vision combines infrared illumination of spectral range 700nm–1000nm – just below the visible spectrum of the human eye – with CCD cameras sensitive to this light. The resulting scene, which is apparently dark to a human observer, appears as a monochrome image on a normal display device.

Because active infrared night vision systems can incorporate illuminators that produce high levels of infrared light, the resulting images are typically higher resolution than other night vision technologies. Active infrared night vision is now commonly found in commercial, residential and government security applications, where it enables effective night time imaging under low light conditions. However, since active infrared light can be detected by night vision goggles, it is generally not used in tactical military operations.

haunted object - a type of haunt that involves a psychic echo or imprint on a particular object that the ghost had a particular attachment to in their physical life. Paintings, Toys, Photgraphs personal belongings, Toys etc..

orb - The term orb describes unexpected, typically circular artifacts in photographs. Sometimes the artifact leaves a trail, indicating motion.

The technical photographic term for the occurrence of orbs, especially pronounced in modern ultra-compact cameras, is backscatter, orb backscatter or near-camera reflection.

Scientific explanation
Due to the size limitations of the modern compact and ultra-compact cameras, especially digital cameras, the distance between the lens and the built-in flash has decreased, thereby decreasing the angle of light reflection to the lens and increasing the liklihood of light reflection off normally sub-visible particles. Hence, the orb artifact is commonplace with small digital or film camera photographs.

The orb artifact can result from reflection of light off solid particles (e.g., dust, pollen), liquid particles (water droplets - especially rain) or other foreign material within the camera lens.

The image artifacts usually appear as either white or semi-transparent circles, though may also occur with whole or partial color spectrums, purple fringing or other chromatic aberration. With rain droplets, an image may capture light passing through the droplet creating a small rainbow effect.

Underwater photographers notice the effect also, which occurs for the same reason as above-water photographic artifacts. Sand, small sea life or other particles close to the lens, invisible to the diver, reflect light from the flash causing the orb artifact in the image. A strobe flash, which distances the flash from the lens, eliminates the artifacts.

Paranormal interpretation
Orb backscatter has been interpreted as a broad and highly variable range of otherwise invisible spirits, auras, angels, ghosts, energy fields, psychoenergetic artifacts, energy balls or other paranormal phenomenon -- and hence beyond scientific explanation

ouija board - (correctly pronounced "wee-jah") although often pronounced "wee-gee") is any flat surface printed with letters, numbers, and other symbols, to which a planchette or movable indicator points, supposedly in answer to questions from people at a séance. The fingers of the participants are placed on the planchette that then moves about the board to spell out messages. Ouija is a trademark for a talking board currently sold by Parker Brothers. While the word is not considered a genericized trademark, it has become a trademark that is often used generically to refer to any talking board. In popular culture these boards are considered to be a spiritual gateway used to contact the dead; however, there is no evidence of any truth to this.

Scientific explanation
Users subconsciously direct the path of the triangle to produce a word that is in that person's subconscious thought process. This subconscious behavior is known as ideomotor action, a term coined by William Carpenter in 1882. It is also known as automatism. Some people may be convinced the "powers" of the ouija board are real because they are unaware that they are in fact moving the piece and therefore assume that the piece must be moving due to some other "spiritual force". The subconscious thought process may produce an answer that is different from what the user expected in their conscious thought process—thus perpetuating the idea that the board has "mystical powers".

Spiritualist explanation
Spiritualists who believe Ouija boards can be used to make actual contact with the spirit world feel that the act of hindering a medium’s ability to use his or her own eyes while the board is in use effectively places too great of a handicap on the whole exercise (see ad hoc hypothesis). This argument stems from the belief that contacted spirits actually utilize the eyes of the medium during a Ouija session in order to point to the letters and words needed to form a message. Most believers of this notion believe that the board has no intrinsic power in and of itself, but rather, is used simply as a tool to aid a medium while in communication with the spirit world

out of body experience (OBE) - An out-of-body experience (OBE or sometimes OOBE), is an experience that typically involves a sensation of floating outside of one's body and, in some cases, perceiving one's physical body from a place outside one's body (autoscopy). About one in ten people has an out-of-body experience at some time in their lives. Scientists know little about the phenomenon. OBEs are often part of the near-death experience, and reportedly may also lead to astral projection. It is claimed that those experiencing an OBE sometimes observe details which were unknown to them beforehand.

In some cases the phenomenon appears to occur spontaneously; in others it is associated with a physical or mental trauma, use of psychedelic drugs, or a dream-like state. It is possible to induce the experience deliberately, for example through visualization while in a relaxed, meditative state. Recent (2007) studies have shown that experiences somewhat similar to OBEs can be induced by direct brain stimulation. Relatively little is known for sure about OBEs. Some of those who experience OBEs claimed to have willed themselves out of their bodies, while others report having found themselves being pulled from their bodies (usually preceded by a feeling of paralysis). In other accounts, the feeling of being outside the body was suddenly realized after the fact, and the experiencers saw their own bodies almost by accident.[4] OBEs often occur during the borderline stage between REM sleep and arousal when sleep paralysis may persist and dream imagery may mingle with sensory input.

Some neurologists have suspected that the event is triggered by a mismatch between visual and tactile signals. They used a virtual reality setup to recreate an OBE. The subject looked through goggles and saw his own body as it would appear to an outside observer standing behind him. The experimenter then touched the subject at the same time as a rod appeared to touch the virtual image. The experiment created an illusion of being behind and outside one's body.

Ovilus- On one of the episodes of Paranormal State, they inroduced a new amazing tool or gadget into the world of ghost hunting and paranormal spirit reseach. It is called "the Ovilus". This piece of equipment translates EMF readings to numbers, and then further translates those numbers into words. It allegedly allows the entity to communicate verbally with whomever is investigating it "face to face" in actual speech, instead of just getting EMF readings and then having a psychic there to try to determine what the entity was attempting to convey to the researchers.

The episode that it was used in was the one with the couple whose home was infested and the one in which the husband was supposedly being told by the entity to kill his family. For those who didn't see the episode, when the EMF meter would spike, they would activate the Ovilus and ask questions and the entity was allegedly answering the questions through the Ovilus. It was saying "worry" and "priest", and then they asked what the entity was as the Ovilus said "demon". It didn't give a name, it just said "demon". They decided that the demon was worried that they were going to call a priest to have it removed from the home.

Parapsychology - Adiscipline that seeks to demonstrate the existence and causes of psychic abilities and life after death using the scientific method. Laboratory and field research is conducted by privately funded laboratories and some universities around the world, although there are fewer universities actively sponsoring parapsychological research today than in years past. Such research is usually published in parapsychological publications, and some articles have appeared in more mainstream journals. Experiments have included the use of random number generators to test for evidence of precognition and psychokinesis with both human and animal subjects, sensory-deprivation and Ganzfeld experiments to test for extrasensory perception, and research trials conducted under contract to the United States government to investigate whether remote viewing would provide useful intelligence information.

The scientific community outside the field of parapsychology has not accepted evidence of the existence of psychic abilities or life after death. Some science educators and scientists have called the subject pseudoscience. Psychologists such as Ray Hyman, Stanley Krippner, and James Alcock have criticized both the methods used and the results obtained in parapsychology, stating that methodological flaws may explain any apparent experimental successes.

paranormal - Umbrella term used to describe unusual phenomena or experiences that lack an obvious scientific explanation. In parapsychology, it is used to describe the potentially psychic phenomena of telepathy, extra-sensory perception, psychokinesis, ghosts, and hauntings. The term is also applied to UFOs, some creatures that fall under the scope of cryptozoology, purported phenomena surrounding the Bermuda Triangle, and other non-psychical subjects. Stories relating to paranormal phenomena are widespread in popular culture and folklore, but some organisations such as the United States National Science Foundation have stated that mainstream science does not support paranormal beliefs.

paranormal flash - It can refer to a today 's flash units are often electronic xenon flash lamps. As well as a a quick intense light or shadow or blur that passes before your eyes. Indicating that you have seen or witnessed a visual apparition or a paranormal phenomena that few or capable of reproducing for others.

paranormal flash equipment - It can also refer to a today 's flash units are often electronic xenon flash lamps. An electronic flash contains a tube filled with xenon gas, where electricity of high voltage is discharged to generate an electrical arc that emits a short flash of light. (A typical duration of the light impulse is 1/1000 second.) As of 2003, the majority of cameras targeted for consumer use have an electronic flash unit built in.

Another type of flash unit are microflashes, which are special, high-voltage flash units designed to discharge a flash of light with an exceptionally quick, sub-microsecond duration. These are commonly used by scientists or engineers for examining extremely fast moving objects or reactions, famous for producing images of bullets tearing through objects like lightbulbs or balloons (see Harold Eugene Edgerton).

Studio flashes usually contain a modeling light, which is an incandescent light bulb placed close to the flash tube. The continuous illumination of a modeling light helps in visualizing the effect of the flash.

The strength of a flash device is often indicated in terms of a guide number, despite the fact that the published guide numbers of different units can not necessarily be directly compared.

Although they are not yet at the power levels to replace xenon flash devices in still cameras, LEDs (specifically, high current flash LEDs) have recently been used as flash sources in camera phones. LEDs are expected to approach the power levels of xenon in the near future and may replace built-in xenon flashes in still cameras. The major advantages of LEDs over xenon include low voltage operation, higher efficiency and extreme miniaturization.*

paranormal perversions - These may consist of any or all sexually motivated actions such as copulation, ejaculating, farting, defecating, spitting, slapping or urinating while on a paranormal investigation of any type.

Humiliation in general touches strong emotional buttons, the more so when it becomes sexualized. Because of this, consent and (paradoxically) a high degree of awareness and communication is needed to ensure that the result is desirable, rather than abusive. For example, a submissive may enjoy being insulted in some ways, but be genuinely crushed and devastated if humiliated or insulted in other ways.

Paranormal Humiliation play is also connected to sexual fetishism, in that non-sexual activities may become sexualized by association with arousal, and also may be associated with exhibitionism in the sense of wanting others to witness (or being aroused by others witnessing) one's sexual degradation.

For some people, activities such as name-calling are a way of achieving ego reduction or getting over sexual inhibitions. For example, between gay people, terms usually associated with homophobia may be used, such as " Ghost faggot" or "Haunted lesbo."

As with all sexual activities, some people have sexual fantasies about paranomal themed humiliation, and others actually undertake it as a lifestyle or in a scene. Sexual fantasies relating to mild humiliation while investigating in groups are not uncommon. Some consider paranomal investigation humiliation roleplay (paranormal -play and ghost hunt play in particular) is combined with loyalty and care-giving to the extent that these fetishes can be seen as exercises in trust rather than primarily a humiliation fetish.

Consider that the desire to be beneath the other partner during intercourse, the idea of "getting caught having sex while ghost hunting" such as with having sex with a real ghost or cryptid, or mild paranormal rape fantasies (where the person imagines themselves to be forced in a way they would like, and which must be seen as completely different to any real form of rape) with a paranormal entity or fellow ghost hunter, are mild emotional games that emphasise status, vulnerability and control.

However, for most people such ideas remain a paranormal sexual fantasy and they would have strong reservations about it being made public, or engaged in with a partner for real, however erotic the idea may be. If a person does reveal their fetish to their partners, this usually is a result of a huge amount of trust invested in them, due to the similarly huge psychological struggle they would have had to have gone through to tell them. Many people have the worry of being ridiculed for their fetish, and such ridicule from their partners could be psychologically catastrophic. Therefore, many people use online humiliation (where the humiliator and others are involved via the internet using chat, email, websites, etc.) as a compromise between exhibitionism and reality on the one hand, and safety and anonymity on the other.

Paranormal Blackmail and Humiliation

The use of paranormal blackmail as a means to exact leverage over a humiliated haunted individual is widely considered to be an extreme aspect of erotic humiliation. In relationships where the humiliated discloses sensitive personal paranormal information to the humiliator, and the release of that information would be catastrophically devastating to life of the effected paranroaml humiliated, the consensual pretext of the relationship comes into question. The humiliator could demand the humiliated to submit or be force them to comply to their monetary demands. Otherwise their paranomal secrets would be revealed publically. The legal implications of such an arrangement have not yet been explored.

paranormal predator - An paranormal labeled organism that feeds on another living organism. Many believe that El chupacabra, Vampires, Demons , bigfoot and many sea monsters are considered as such.

Paranormal Ghost Predators are considered unseen entity's that antagonize the living by their own personal means of self gratification. such creatures demons, ghosts poltergeist in particular and elementals are believed to get some kind of joy or laugh off of taunting us as they haunt us.

The term paranormal sexual predator is used pejoratively to describe a person being or unseen entity seen as obtaining or trying to obtain sexual contact with another person in a metaphorically "predatory" manner. Analogous to how a predator hunts down its prey, so the sexual predator is thought to "hunt" for his or her sex partners. People animals, beasts cryptids ghosts or demon possessed individuals who commit sex crimes, such as rape or child sexual abuse, are commonly referred to as a paranormal sexual predators, particularly in works of romantic paranormal fictions or tabloid media and web sites .

The term is applied according to a person's moral beliefs, and does not necessarily denote criminal behavior. For example, a person who cruises a bar looking for consensual sex from someone else could be considered a sexual predator by some. A person who looks at a paranormal group as a dating or sexual pool is also called this by their dating habits.

The BDSM community often uses Predator as a term for someone that seeks out Dominance and submission parties that are new to the lifestyle. These parties would use the submissive or Dominant in a manner that suited their personal needs instead of encouraging them to grow and learn on their own about this culture.

In that same circle there are also Predators that are simply hunters, they seek a certain type of personality, age group, fetish or play style. They often refer to themselves as Predators and enjoy the game of Hunter/prey.

Paranormal sexual predators can also be those that stalk chat boards, forums and groups. And their reasons for doing so can and will vary.

The term "paranormal sexual predator" is often considered distinct from "sex offender". Many U.S. states also see these differences legally. A sexual offender is a person who has committed a sexual offense. A sexual predator is often used to refer to a person who habitually seeks out sexual situations that are deemed exploitative. However, in some states, the term "sexual predator" is applied to anyone who has been convicted of certain crimes, regardless of whether or not there is a history of similar behavior. In the state of Illinois, for instance, a person convicted of any sex crime against a minor is designated a sexual predator, no matter the nature of the crime (violent versus statutory, a young child versus a teenager, etc.), and regardless of past behavior. This has led to criticism that the term is being misused, or overused, and thus has lost its original meaning and effectiveness.

Some U.S. states have a special status for criminals designated as sexually violent predators, which allows these offenders to be held in prison after their sentence is complete if they are considered to be a risk to the public. They can also be placed on a sexual offender or sexual predator list which is viewable by everyone on the Internet.

paranormal research - Approaching paranormal phenomena from a research perspective is often difficult because even when the phenomena are seen as real they may be difficult to explain using existing rules or theory. By definition, paranormal phenomena exist outside of conventional norms. Skeptics contend that they don't exist at all. Despite this challenge, studies on the paranormal are periodically conducted by researchers all from various disciplines. Some researchers study just the beliefs in paranormal phenomena regardless of whether the phenomena actually exist.

This section deals with various approaches to the paranormal including those scientific, pseudoscientific, and unscientific. Skeptics feel that supposed scientific approaches are actually pseudoscientific for several reasons which are explored in this glossary.

paranormal sexual encounter - Human sexual behavior or human sexual practices or human sexual activities refers to the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality. when it happens with a cryptid or a unseen entity as a demon ghost or poltergeist then it is called aa "paranormal sexual encounters". It encompasses a wide range of activities, such as strategies to find or attract partners (mating and display behavior), interactions between individuals, physical or emotional intimacy, and sexual contact.

The term sexual paranormal activity can refer both to acts involving two or more people - as in sexual intercourse or oral sex- and to masturbation.

In some cultures paranormal sexual activity is considered acceptable, such as sex with possessed individuals in the practices of voodoo and hoodoo. Although extramarital sex still takes place within such cultures. Some paranormal sexual activities are illegal either universally or in some countries, and some are considered against the norms of a society. especially when necrophilia , (sex with a corpse is involved.) For example, sexual activity with a minor is a criminal offense in many jurisdictions, as is sexual abuse of individuals in general.

But when it happens to you from an unseen force or cryptid then automatically people call you a liar to your face.

Sexual paranormal pleasure is the pleasure a person derives from any kind of sexual activity, most commonly through orgasm with a paranormal force or being. The most common pleasurable sexual activities are masturbation and sexual intercourse (including foreplay). Some people derive sexual pleasure from fetishism and/or BDSM role playing games. Paranormal sexual pleasures and encounters are actually sought after by some living individuals.

paranormal slang - words used by people who explore paranormal phenomena. words such as Bigfoot, Yeti, sasquatch, Yowie, and swamp man can all be terms to refer to the same cryptozological creature. Other slang's for a bigfoot might be: Wild man, ape man or nether being depending on region and colloquialism

Words from initials such as EVP, Emf, OBI, RV, NDE and many others that paranormal investigators may use in conversation articles or on paranormal blog's, chat boards or radio programs web sites.

A paranormal colloquialism is an expression not used in formal speech, writing or paralinguistic's. Colloquialisms are also sometimes referred to collectively as "colloquial language". Ghost paranormal investigative or cryptid Colloquialisms or colloquial language is considered to be characteristic of or only appropriate for casual, ordinary, familiar, or informal conversation rather than formal speech or writing Dictionaries often display colloquial words and phrases with the abbreviation colloq. As an identifier.

Paranormal reference as "Ghost Shit" may refer to equipment or something identified with a ghost in particular. It can also refer to solid forms of material or mucus referred to as slime or ecto by products of physical solid substance. And this is very rare to stumble upon.

A bastard ghost or "Bastard Ghosts" , is often called this because they cannot be identified with the location or haunting. It can also be called a rouge ghost or a unidentified spook.

Ghost Geek can refer to someone who intensely search for real paranormal ghosts and or activity.

Spook - Spook's or Spooky, and also referred to as Spook HO's this can and does also refer to ghost groupies. These or those individuals that hunt the ghost hunters and leading figures in the field of paranormal research only because they are amoured with them. A Spook is the male form of a spooky. this phrase was coined by a paranormal investigator of celebrity fame when referring to the individuals that haunt him.

Ghost Gawker is someone that believes every supposed haunting they hear of , urban legend or fake or real photo they see is real. These individuals need no proof other then what is presented to them, be it text, photos, or tall tales as actual proof that ghost are real.

Ghost Gawked is when you know a ghost is watching you because you can sense it or fell it's presence.

Crypto Head is reference to someone who studies Cryptozoology, where as a Spook Head (Ghost Head) or Dead Head refers to someone who hunts for ghosts. Both are consider know it all but not necessarily well informed. It may also refer to a investigator that smokes pot. A dead head also refers to those that hunt for vampires and zombies.

Ghost Jock can refer to a paranormal Radio host as well as a jock is a classic North American stereotype of a male athlete who hunts for ghosts. The etymology of the term jock is derived from the word jockstrap, which is an athletic support garment worn by men who engage in physical sports. The jock stereotype is attributed mostly to high school and college athletics participants who form a significant youth subculture. In sociology, the jock is thought to be included within the socialite subculture, which also contains the preppies and Ivy-Leaguers. As a blanket term the jock is considered synonymous with an athlete.

Other words that may mean the same as "ghost jock" include dead meathead, musclebrain and the similar term musclehead ghost. These terms are to most often refer to the conceit and selfishness that develops with the stereotype. And it also can refer to a rough poltergeist.

The ghost jock stereotype is used often in the paranomal community or web media to portray a relatively unintelligent and unenlightened, but nonetheless physically and socially well endowed character.

Warning: Vulgar ghost slang:

A Ghost f**k may refer to a person or the actual act of sexual intercourse with a real ghost. This term can also refer to a diliberate hoaxed paranormal house, location, person or investigation or misrepresented haunted urban legends.

Ghost piss refers to an ecto liquid often experienced as moisture falling on an individual in a dry room or indoor situation. Many ghost hunters and unsuspecting people have reported this strange phenomena over the years. From being hit with a few drops to large amounts of liquids falling upon them. This often happens at haunted houses and during the practice of a seance or paranormal investigations. Small amounts or a drop or two is sometimes referred to as ghost spit. A solid form of liquid spat upon an individual by an unseen ghost or entity.

Ghost bitch an evil ghost usually female that tends to intimidate or bully the individual it haunts. It can also refer to a Ghost Female groupie.

Ghost Grope when a ghost gropes an individual in a sexual way, or touches ones genitalia inappropriately.

Ghost Hunting Cuckold refers to aa cuckold in general. This ghost hunter or paranormal activity investigator is a married man with an adulterous wife, but current usage sometimes extends the term informally to include ghost cuckqueans (women with adulterous husbands), wittols (husbands who consent to their wife's extramarital sex), and non-married couples in analogous situations. The gesture of the horned hand can be used to insult the cuckold. The gesture of the horned hand two fingers up the index and the little finger, can be used to insult the cuckold.

A ghost queen refers to a ghost that portrays itself by it's haunting actions and manners as female spirit or shadow person but in actuality could be a male. These ghost are always perceived as woman though they are not. A ghost queen ay also refer to a male ghost hunter with effeminate qualities. Where as a ghost king refers to this female counter part.

Ghost bullshit refers to a actual perpetrated hoax. Such as actual faked ghost photos or EVPs or documentation of any type. It also can refer to a haunting and the attributed actions of a ghost towards living individuals.

pareidolia - Pareidolia (pronounced /pærɪˈdoʊliə/) is a psychological phenomenon involving a vague and random stimulus (often an image or sound) being perceived as significant. Common examples include seeing images of animals or faces in clouds, the man in the moon, and hearing hidden messages on records played in reverse. The word comes from the Greek para- ("beside", "with", or "alongside"—meaning, in this context, something faulty or wrong (as in paraphasia, disordered speech)) and eidolon ("image"; the diminutive of eidos ("image", "form", "shape")). Pareidolia is a type of apophenia.

poltergeists: Noisy Ghosts - (from German poltern, meaning to rumble or make noise, and Geist, meaning "ghost", "spirit", or "embodiment") denotes a demonic spirit or ghost that manifests itself by moving and influencing objects.

Although poltergeist stories date back to the first century, most evidence to support the existence of poltergeists is anecdotal, which is hardly surprising as the nature of the phenomenon is unpredictable and sporadic. Indeed, many of the stories below have several versions and/or inconsistencies; however there are a few that do not, for example, the Miami poltergeist has event records signed by all witnesses as to the way things happened. These witnesses include police officers, a skeptical magician, and workers at the warehouse. The Rosenheim case is another, with multiple witnesses and unexplained electric and telephonic phenomena.

An "evil spirit" threw stones and made the walls shake in a small farmhouse. This was the first recorded poltergeist case. (858)
Drummer of Tedworth (1661).

Lithobolia (1698)
A pamphlet printed in London in 1698 by Mr. Ricard Chamberlain provides an account of a poltergeist-type haunting that had occurred some years before. Two copies of the pamphlet exist in the British Museum called: "Lithobolia, or stone throwing Devil. Being an Exact and True account (by way of Journal) of the various actions of infernal Spirits or (Devils Incarnate) Witches or both: and the great Disturbance and Amazement they gave to George Walton's family at a place called Great Island in the province of New Hampshire in New England, chiefly in throwing about (by an Invisible hand) Stones, Bricks, and Brick-Bats of all sizes, with several other things, as Hammers, Mauls, Iron-Crows, Spits, and other Utensils, as came into their Hellish minds, and this for space of a quarter of a year....", some cases, these types of spirits share aspects with elves and goblins.

The "Wizard", Livingston, West Virginia (1797).
The Bell Witch (1817).
The Haunting of The Fox sisters (1848) - arguably one of the most famous, because it started the Spiritualism movement.
Hopfgarten near Weimar (1921).
Eleonore Zugun - The Romanian 'Poltergeist Girl' (1926).
The Borley Rectory phenomena (1929).

Borley Rectory (1937)
William Roll, Hans Bender, and Harry Price are perhaps three of the most famous poltergeist investigators in the annals of parapsychology. Harry Price investigated Borley Rectory which is often called "the most haunted house in England."

Rosenheim (1967)
Dr. Friedbert Karger was one of two physicists from the Max Planck Institute who helped to investigate perhaps the most validated poltergeist case in recorded history. Annemarie Schneider, a 19-year-old secretary in a law firm in Rosenheim (a small town in southern Germany) was seemingly the unwitting cause of much chaos in the firm, including disruption of electricity and telephone lines, the rotation of a picture, swinging lamps which were captured on video (which was one of the first times any poltergeist activity has been captured on film), and strange sounds that sounded electrical in origin were recorded. Fraud was not proven despite intensive investigation by the physicists, journalists, and the police. The effects moved with the young woman when she changed jobs until they finally faded out.

In the Rosenheim case of 1967 , The Rosenheim Poltergeist (1967). (German and most extensive). Friedbert Karger's whole perspective on physics changed after investigating the events. "These experiments were really a challenge to physics," Karger says today. "What we saw in the Rosenheim case could be 100 per cent shown not to be explainable by known physics." [6]. The phenomena were witnessed by Hans Bender, the police force, the CID, reporters, and the physicists. The claims were aired in a documentary in 1975 in a series called "Leap in the Dark."

The Black Monk of Pontefract
The Enfield Poltergeist (1977).
The Miami Poltergeist, a poltergeist witnessed by police and a skeptical magician who did not believe it was a ghost, but admitted he witnessed phenomena he could not explain. Many others witnessed phenomena including reporters, parapsychologists, and workers at the warehouse.
The Mackenzie Poltergeist (fairly recent) - Famed for haunting Greyfriars church yard, Edinburgh, UK.
The Canneto di Caronia fires poltergeist (fairly recent (2004-2005)) - Famed for defying all attempts at a scientific explanation, Sicily, Italy.
The Entity Case allegedly involved a single mother of three named Carla Moran who was being repeatedly raped by an invisible entity and its two helpers over the course of several years.
The case of Tina Resch, widely reported in the media in 1984.
A recent case in Barnsley near Sheffield in England, where poltergeist effects were witnessed by the police force.
In Denver, Colorado there have been several reports of unknown forces positioning toys, furniture, and objects in patterns and strange positions.
The Thornton Road poltergeist of Birmingham (1981).
Easington Council in County Durham, UK paid half of a medium's fee so that she would exorcise a poltergeist from public housing in Peterlee as it was deemed more cost effective than relocation of the tenant (2008).

preternatural - or praeternatural is that which appears outside or beyond (Latin præter) the natural. While this may include what is more commonly called the supernatural, it may also simply indicate extremity — an ordinary phenomenon taken 'beyond' the natural. One may have, for example, a preternatural desire, a preternatural curiosity, a preternaturally acute ear (sense of hearing), or even preternaturally big ears.

Often used to distinguish from the divine (supernatural) while maintaining a distinction from the purely natural. For instance, in theology, the angels, both holy and fallen, are endowed with preternatural powers. Their intellect, speed, and other characteristics are beyond human capacities but are still finite.

Other examples of preternatural creatures include fairies, werewolves, vampires and zombies.

psychokinesis - The term psychokinesis (from the Greek, "psyche", meaning mind, soul, heart, or breath; and, "kinesis", meaning motion; literally "movement from the mind"), also known as telekinesis (Greek, literally "distant-movement"), sometimes abbreviated PK and TK respectively, is a term coined by Henry Holt to refer to the direct influence of mind on a physical system that cannot be entirely accounted for by the mediation of any known physical energy. It has been called the most powerful of psychic powers, essentially the power of a god. Examples of psychokinesis could include distorting or moving an object, or influencing the output of a random number generator.

The study of phenomena said to be psychokinetic is an aspect of parapsychology. Some paranormal researchers believe that psychokinesis exists and deserves further study, pointing to experimental results such as those done using random number generators.

Data that proponents say shows that psychokinesis can occur has been assailed by independent evaluations as being subject to problems such as publication bias, fraud, delusion, and statistical manipulation of scientific data. Alternatively, other natural phenomena have been identified as being able to explain certain claimed instances of psychokinesis.

Pseudoscience - A actual methodology, belief, or practice that is claimed to be scientific, or that is made to appear to be scientific, but which does not adhere to an appropriate scientific methodology, lacks supporting evidence or plausibility, or otherwise lacks scientific status. The term comes from the Greek prefix pseudo- (false or pretending) and "science" (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge"). An early recorded use was in 1843 by French physiologist François Magendie, who is considered a pioneer in experimental physiology.

The term is inherently pejorative, because it is used to assert that something is being inaccurately or deceptively portrayed as science. Accordingly, those labeled as practicing or advocating a "pseudoscience" normally dispute this characterization. There is disagreement among philosophers of science and among commentators in the scientific community about whether there is a reliable objective way to distinguish "pseudoscience" from non-mainstream "science".

Professor Paul DeHart Hurd argued that a large part of gaining scientific literacy is "being able to distinguish science from pseudo-science such as astrology, quackery, the occult, and superstition". As it is taught in certain introductory science classes, pseudoscience is any subject that appears superficially to be scientific, or whose proponents state that it is scientific, but which nevertheless contravenes the testability requirement or substantially deviates from other fundamental aspects of the scientific method.

Pseudoscience has been characterised by the use of vague, exaggerated or untestable claims, over-reliance on confirmation rather than refutation, lack of openness to testing by other experts, and a lack of progress in theory development.

psychic senses
In Spiritualism, psychic senses used by mental mediums are sometimes defined differently than in other paranormal fields. The term clairvoyance, for instance, may be used by Spiritualists to include seeing spirits and visions instilled by spirits, whereas the Parapsychological Association defines "clairvoyance" as information derived directly from an external physical source.

Clairvoyance or "Clear Seeing", is the ability to see anything which is not physically present, such as objects, animals or people. This sight occurs "in the mind’s eye", and some mediums say that this is their normal vision state. Others say that they must train their minds with such practices as meditation in order to achieve this ability, and that assistance from spiritual helpers is often necessary. Some clairvoyant mediums can see a spirit as though the spirit has a physical body. They see the bodily form as if it were physically present. Other mediums see the spirit in their mind's eye, or it appears as a movie or a television programme or a still picture like a photograph in their mind.

Clairaudience or "Clear Hearing", is usually defined as the ability to hear the voices or thoughts of spirits. Some Mediums hear as though they are listening to a person talking to them on the outside of their head, as though the Spirit is next to or near to the medium, and other mediums hear the voices in their minds as a verbal thought.

Clairsentience or "Clear Sensing", is the ability to have an impression of what a spirit wants to communicate, or to feel sensations instilled by a spirit.

Clairsentinence or "Clear Feeling" is a condition in which the medium takes on the ailments of a spirit, feeling the same physical problem the spirit person before they died.

Clairalience or "Clear Smelling" is the ability to smell a spirit. For example, a medium may smell the pipe tobacco of a person who smoked during life.

Clairgustance or "Clear Tasting" is the ability to receive taste impressions from a spirit.

Claircognizance or "Clear Knowing", is the ability to know something without receiving it through normal or psychic senses. It is a feeling of "just knowing". Often, a medium will claim to have the feeling that a message or situation is "right" or "wrong."

reciprocal apparition - a rare type of spirit phenomenon in which both the apparition and human see and respond to each other. The talk or show sighns that they are wittnessing you as you they, this happens more often when practicing the art of Necomancy.

remote vewing (RV) - Refers to the attempt to gather information about a distant or unseen target using paranormal means or extra-sensory perception. Typically a remote viewer is expected to give information about an object that is hidden from physical view and separated at some distance. The term was introduced by parapsychologists Russell Targ and Harold Puthoff in 1974.

Remote viewing was popularized in the 1990s, following the declassification of documents related to the Stargate Project, a 20 million dollar research program sponsored by the U.S. Federal Government to determine any potential military application of psychic phenomena. The program was terminated in 1995, citing a lack of documented evidence that the program had any value to the intelligence community.

One of the early experiments was lauded by proponents as having improved the methodology of remote viewing testing and as raising future experimental standards, but also criticized as leaking information to the participants by inadvertently leaving clues. [6] Some later experiments had negative results when these clues were eliminated.

Remote viewing, like other forms of extra-sensory perception, is generally considered as pseudoscience due to the need to overcome fundamental ideas about causality, time, and other principles currently held by the scientific community, and the lack of a positive theory that explains the outcomes

residual haunting - a phenomenon in which an event is seen replayed over and over again, like a piece of film. Residual hauntings may require certain atmospheric conditions to appear, or may appear only at certain times of the year, such as upon the anniversary of the event. They are not thought to be the result of ghost or spirit activity, and have no consciousness, but rather are the result of the psychic energy left behind by the event itself.

séance - (pronounced /'say-ons/) is an attempt to communicate with spirits. The word "séance" comes from the French word for "seat," "session" or "sitting," from the Old French "seoir," "to sit." In French, the word's meaning is quite general: one may, for example, speak of "une séance de cinéma" ("a movie session"). In English, however, the word came to be used specifically for a meeting of people who are gathered to receive messages from ghosts or spirits or to listen to a spirit medium discourse with or relay messages from spirits; in modern English usage, participants need not be seated while engaged in a séance.

second sight -A form of extra-sensory perception whereby a person perceives information, in the form of vision, about future events before they happen. Foresight expresses the meaning of second sight, which perhaps was originally so called because normal vision was regarded as coming first, while supernormal vision is a secondary thing, confined to certain individuals

sensitive - Some one with Psycic Powers that can sense the presence of real ghosts and communicate with them.

Paranormal Task Force Founder Greg Myers and his wife Judy a sensitive have set up Paravoyance.

ParaVoyance™ "Your Connection to the Other Side" is devoted to the Clairvoyant (Psychic) and Metaphysical realms that intertwine with the paranormal. This division provides clients, and other organizations or groups with such resources to assist with their needs.

PTF understands the importance of the Clairvoyant and Metaphysical aspects within the paranormal realms. Many times a proven Clairvoyant/Psychic or "Sensitive" as they may call themselves can be a very valuable attribute to have during client interviews, investigations and research of a location. Having such can assist in locating equipment for captures, assessing the situation for unseen dangers, providing valuable leads in researching, assisting in spirit rescue and making other connections to the other side for specialized needs. Also in today's modern age, many clients and investigators have taken a more metaphysical approach in their beliefs and practices resulting in a higher need for assistance and consultation in these other realms as well. Weather it is to assist a client or another investigative group, we are here to lend a hand!

This division is administered and led by Judy Myers and Matt Hendrix. ParaVoyance™

shade -The alternaate word "ghost" may also refer to the spirit or soul of a deceased person, or to any spirit or demon.

shadow people - Shadow people (also known as the shadows, the hat-man, or beings) are supernatural shadow-like creatures of both modern folklore and paranormal popular culture that believers claim appear as dark forms seen mostly in peripheral vision. Anecdotal reports of shadow people occupy a similar role in popular culture to ghost sightings.

Authors such as Rosemary Ellen Guiley and Heidi Hollis have helped popularize the concept through books, articles and appearances on radio talk shows devoted to paranormal subjects such as Coast to Coast AM where listeners are invited to call in to relate stories and "sightings". Shadow people are typically described as black humanoid silhouettes with no discernible mouths, noses, or facial expressions, child-sized humanoids, or shapeless masses that sometimes change to human like form and featuring eyes that are either glowing or not discernable.[3] Movement is said to be quick and disjointed, and some stories describe the visible outline of a cloak, or a 1930s style fedora hat.

Various authors and paranormal-themed web sites have drawn beliefs and speculation regarding shadow people from religion, parapsychology, metaphysics, cryptozoology, demonology, and the occult, proposing that shadow people represent a Thoughtform (egregore), ghost or demon that was created by events in which extreme physical/emotional stress/trauma has taken place, have been purposefully summoned through black magic or other occult practices, or are creatures who exist on a separate plane of existence that occasionally overlaps with ours. Others believe shadow people are two-dimensional beings, are related to Grey aliens, or to the Reptilian humanoids found in conspiracy beliefs such as those promoted by David Icke.

Several principles based in science can be used to explain reports of shadow people, including optical illusions or hallucinations brought on by physiological/psychological circumstances, drug use, and the interaction of external agents on the human body.

Images seen in peripheral areas of vision can be caused by pareidolia, a condition in which the brain incorrectly interprets random patterns of light/shadow or texture as being familiar patterns such as faces and human forms. The same condition can also be observed in macular vision in low light conditions, or when viewing a complex but random image. A common example would be perceiving a shadow, thrown by an item of furniture in a darkened room, as being a person.

Though drugs may be a cause to induce "Hallucinations", reports all over the world by millions of people suggest this is not an illusion. Many have identified 2 separate kinds of shadow beings. The "Hat Man" and "Shadows". Most reporters have never touched drugs in their life, and yet they experience these beings in their dreams and in their daily life. They can be described as swift/fast moving, red or yellow eyes, no face, cloaks, and a sense of dread and fear. As for the Hat Man, he is uniquely identified with a 50s hat and a suit. They are attracted to people who are dwelling places of negative energy and feelings, especially those who are depressed, fearful, or in self-loath or lack self love. They are known to feed off of fear, and when a person fears them, they keep returning. Many have reported that they have been raped, choked, or attacked in some way by these beings. They can be categorized as demons, and some believe that there is an alien tie to these beings.

Hypnagogia, also known as "waking-sleep", a physiological condition in which a person is part-way between sleeping and waking, can also account for such perceptions. During hypnagogia, a person can be conscious and aware of their environment, but also in a dream-like state where they can perceive images from their subconscious. People experiencing waking-sleep commonly report the sensation of lights or shadows moving around them, as well as other visual hallucinations. A feeling of dread is also a sensation that occurs when experiencing hypnagogia. Hypnagogia is sometimes known as 'the faces in the dark phenomenon' because those who experience this state commonly report seeing faces while experiencing waking-sleep. Similar hypotheses have been put forward linking this condition to a number of other apparent paranormal experiences, including alien abductions, paranormal nocturnal visitations, and religious experiences such as contact with angels or demons.


specter - Spectre, a ghost, or another kind of spiritual being or sprite.

spectrophobia - The fear of ghosts. Known by a number of names - Spectrophobia, Phasmophobia, Fear of Specters, Spookaphobia, and Fear of Ghosts being the most common - the problem often significantly impacts the quality of life. also see: Spectrophobia the fear of ghosts.

Symptoms of Spectrophobia – Fear of specters or ghosts:
breathlessness, excessive sweating, dry mouth, nausea, feeling sick, shaking, heart palpitations, inability to speak or think clearly, a fear of dying, becoming mad or losing control, a sensation of detachment from reality or a full blown anxiety attack.

Spectrophobia" is a hybrid word derived from the Latin "spectrum" (appearance, apparition) and the Greek "phobos" (fear). "Spectrum" is also used to form many other English words, including a word with the same spelling, "spectrum" (the series of color bands of light appearing after white light passes through a diffracting device such as a prism); "spectrology" (the scientific study of the spectrum); and "specter" (apparition, ghost).

spectro-ecto meter - A spectro - ecto - meter is an optical registering instrument used to measure properties of ghosts and their energy or light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in paranormal ghost hunting analysis to identify the presence of a real ghost.

The actual variable measured is most often the light's intensity but could also, for instance, be the polarization state. The independent variable is usually the wavelength of the light, normally expressed as some fraction of a meter, but sometimes expressed as some unit directly proportional to the photon energy, such as wave number or electron volts, which has a reciprocal relationship to wavelength. To this day their only 100 in circulation.They are made by a single paranormal Investigator from Berlin. There are only 3 paranormal investigators in the United States that actually have one in their possession for testing. Thee results have been astounding.

spirit energy - The term Energy has been widely adopted into the fields of spirituality, complementary medicine etc. to refer to a variety of forces, known and unknown, measurable and immeasurable, actual and putative, physical and spiritual, often, though not always, conceived as "fields" or subtle forms surrounding the earth or any living thing, supposed to be directly perceptible and accessible to the human mind as "rays", "fields" or "vibrations".

In many cases "energy" is conceived of as a universal life force: to this extent "spiritual energy" theories resemble scientific vitalism and may even invoke the Luminiferous Ether of Victorian physics. Additionally, or alternatively, such notions are often aligned with or derived from conceptions found in other cultures, such as the Chinese idea of Qi and the Prana of the Upanisads. Many such ideas arise from the primitive idea of life as breath - a relationship implicit also in the word "spirit".

Such a usage is already evident in William Blake's The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1793);

"Energy is the only life and is from the Body and Reason is the bound or outward circumference of Energy. Energy is Eternal Delight."

Blake's alignment of energy with affective emotion is noteworthy, for it depicts energy as the psychic continuum that unites body and mind, thus reflecting Plato's celebrated tripartite division of the human psyche into the appetitive, the spirited and the rational.[8] Such an integration of "energy" into systematic esoteric expositions of the universe and/or the human psyche is frequently found combined, as in Kundalini and Theosophy, into an account of a heirarchy of "inner planes" or "subtle bodies".

It will be evident from the above that such an idea of energy, to the extent that it is expressed with rational rigour, may draw upon comparative religion, biology, physics, medicine or even all at once. Moreover, the status of any such idea may generally be assumed to be a matter of controversy. Further, many themes commonly discussed under this rubric are elaborated in Wikipedia in their own articles. All this being the case, these present remarks can be and need be no more than tentative. It is therefore intended that a list of such articles be compiled here, divided into general headings and commented upon only sufficiently to aid, hopefully, a primary orientation in this far-reaching matter.

spirit guide - For some mediums, a spirit guide is a highly evolved spirit with the sole purpose of helping the medium develop and use their skills. They assist mediums in following their spiritual path. For other mediums, a spirit guide is one who brings other spirits to a medium's attention or carries communications between a medium and the spirits of the dead. Many mediums claim to have specific guides who regularly work with them and "bring in" spirits of the dead. Some mediums believe that spirits of the dead will communicate with them directly without the use of a spirit guide. The relationship between the medium and the guide may be providential, or it may be based on family ties. In 1958, the English-born Spiritualist C. Dorreen Phillips wrote of her experiences with a medium at Camp Chesterfield, Indiana: "In Rev. James Laughton's seances there are many Indians. They are very noisy and appear to have great power. [...] The little guides, or doorkeepers, are usually Indian boys and girls [who act] as messengers who help to locate the spirit friends who wish to speak with you."Then, describing the mediumship of Rev. Lillian Dee Johnson of Saint Petersburg, Florida, she noted, "Mandy Lou is Rev. Johnson's guide. She was, on earth, a slave to Rev. Johnson's grandmother."

spirit medium - Mediumship is a practice in religious beliefs such as Spiritualism, Spiritism, Espiritismo, Candomblé, Louisiana Voodoo, and Umbanda which is believed by its adherents to be a form of communication with spirits. While the Western movements of Spiritualism and Spiritism account for most Western media exposure, most traditional African and African diasporic traditions include mediumship as a central focus of religious practice.

spirit possession - Spirit possession is a concept of paranormal, supernatural and/or superstitious belief in which spirits, gods, daemons, demons, animas, or other disincarnate entities may take control of a human body, resulting in noticeable changes in behavior. The concept of spiritual possession exists in Christianity and other contemporary religions and can also be seen in the mythology and folklore of many cultures.

In demonolatry
Some individuals who practice demonolatry invoke the demons, taking their spirit by invitation into themselves as part of worship.

In Haitian Vodou and African traditions
One way that those who participate or practice Haitian Vodou and related traditions can have a spiritual experience is by being possessed by the lwa. When the lwa descends upon a practitioner, the practitioner's body is being used by the spirit, according to the tradition. Some spirits are believed to be able to give prophecies of upcoming events or situations pertaining to the possessed one, also called "Chwal" or the "Horse of the Spirit." Practitioners experience this as being a beautiful but very tiring experience. Most people who are possessed by the spirit get a feeling of blackness or energy flowing through their body as if they were being electrocuted. According to Vodou believers, when this occurs, it is a sign that a possession is in the works. The practitioner has no recollection of the possession and in fact when the possessing spirit leaves the body, the possessed one is tired and wonders what has happened during the possession. Not all practitioners have the ability to become possessed, but practitioners who do generally prefer not to make excessive use of it because it drains immense energy from them. It is said that only the spirit/lwa can choose who it wants to possess, for the spirit may have a mission that it can carry out spiritually. Also, it is believed in Haitian Vodou and related traditions that those possessed by the lwa probably are at a very high spiritual level such that their soul is mature and at an advanced level.

It is also believed in Haitian Vodou and related traditions that there are those who feign possessions because they want attention or a feeling of importance, because those who are possessed carry a high importance in ceremony. Often, a "chwal" will undergo some form of trial or testing to make sure that the possession is indeed genuine. As an example, someone possessed by one of the Guédé spirits may be offered piment, a liqueur made by steeping twenty-one chili peppers in kleren, a potent alcoholic beverage. If the "chwal" consumes the piment without showing any evidence of pain or discomfort, the possession is regarded as genuine.

In Sudan and certain other East African cultures exists the Zar Cult, a ethnomedical healing ceremony involving possession typically of Muslim women by a Zar spirit.

spook - An alternative term (Dutch, from Middle Dutch spooc) for a ghost.

stigmatized property- A term used in the real estate business which describes possible detrimental features of a property or home, all the result of unfortunate occurrences. These can include murder, suicide or even AIDS, in addition to a belief that a house may be haunted.

Caveat emptor is Latin for "Let the buyer beware".

Famous homes, such as those used in television or movies, can also be stigmatized due to increased traffic from fans wanting to see the house in person. One such home is the house that was made famous in the film The Amityville Horror. The house which was located at 112 Ocean Avenue in Amityville, New York was the site where Ronald DeFeo, Jr. murdered his family, and a little over a year later the Lutz family claimed that evil spirits drove them from their home. Since the film's release, the house has been renovated and the address changed in an attempt to prevent sightseers from disturbing the neighborhood.

Even though a particular buyer may not care about any stigma attached to the property, the stigma may make it very difficult to resell in the future. Therefore, while a buyer may or may not believe in supernatural phenomena, he/she may want to know about a property's bloody past. However, depending on the jurisdiction of the house, the seller may not be required to disclose the full facts.

strobe - Strobe light or stroboscopic lamp, commonly called a strobe, is a device used to produce regular flashes of light. It is one of a number of devices that can be used as a stroboscope. The word originated from the Greek strobos, meaning "act of whirling."

Strobe lights are used in scientific and industrial applications, in clubs where they are used to give an illusion of slow motion (cf. stroboscopic effect) and for aircraft anti-collision lighting. Other applications are in alarm systems, theatrical lighting (most notably to simulate lightning), and as high-visibility running lights. They are still widely used in law enforcement and other emergency vehicles, though they are slowly being replaced by LED technology in this application, as they themselves largely replaced halogen lighting. Strobes are used by scuba divers as an emergency signaling device. Strobe lighting has also been used to see the movements of the vocal cords in slow motion during speech, a procedure known as video-stroboscopy. Special calibrated strobe lights, capable of flashing up to hundreds of times per second, are used in industry to stop the motion of rotating and other repetitively-operating machinery and to measure the rotation speeds or cycle times. Strobelights are often used in nightclubs and raves, and are available for home use for special effects or entertainment.

Today it is the newest ghost hunting tool available. Many have reported that they can actually see spirits and ghosts with their naked eye when used in a paranomal investigation.

When strobe lights were used in the 1970's during the disco craze many individuals woulkd often report seeing spectral images or reported appritions of ghosts.

The origin of strobe lighting dates to 1931, when Harold Eugene "Doc" Edgerton employed a flashing lamp to make an improved stroboscope for the study of moving objects, eventually resulting in dramatic photographs of objects such as bullets in flight.

EG&G [now a division of URS] was founded by Harold E. Edgerton, Kenneth J. Germeshausen and Herbert E. Grier in 1947 as Edgerton, Germeshausen and Grier, Inc. and today bears their initials. In 1931, Edgerton and Germeshausen had formed a partnership to study high-speed photographic and stroboscopic techniques and their applications. Grier joined them in 1934, and in 1947, EG&G was incorporated. During World War II, the government's Manhattan Project made use of Edgerton's discoveries to photograph atomic explosions; it was a natural evolution that the company would support the Atomic Energy Commission in its weapons research and development after the war. This work for the Commission provided the historic foundation to the Company's present-day technology base.

A strobe light flashing at the proper period can appear to freeze cyclical motion

The strobe light was popularized on the club scene during the 1960s when it was used to reproduce and enhance the effects of LSD trips. Ken Kesey used strobe lighting in coordination with the music of the Grateful Dead during his legendary Acid Tests.

A typical commercial strobe light has a flash energy in the region of 10 to 150 joules, and discharge times as short as a few milliseconds, often resulting in a flash power of several kilowatts. Larger strobe lights can be used in “continuous” mode, producing extremely intense illumination.

The light source is commonly a xenon flash lamp, which has a complex spectrum and a color temperature of approximately 5,600 kelvins. To obtain colored light, colored gels must be used.


Strobe lights and epilepsy

Strobe lighting can trigger seizures in photosensitive epilepsy. An infamous event took place in Japan when an episode of a Pokémon anime, Dennō Senshi Porygon, featured a scene that had huge explosion flashing red and blue lights, causing about 685 children to be sent to hospitals.[3] These flashes were extremely bright strobe lights. Most strobe lights on sale to the public are factory-limited to about 10-12 flashes per second in their internal oscillators, although externally triggered strobe lights will often flash as frequently as possible. At a frequency of 10 Hz, 65% of affected people are still at risk. The British Health and Safety Executive recommend that a net flash rate for a bank of strobe lights does not exceed 5 flashes per second, at which only 5% of photosensitive epileptics are at risk. It also recommends that no strobing effect continue for more than 30 seconds due to the potential for discomfort and disorientation.

succubus - In Western medieval legend, a succubus (plural succubi) is a demon, who takes the form of a beautiful woman to seduce men, especially monks, in dreams to have sexual intercourse. They draw energy from the men to sustain themselves, often until the point of exhaustion or death of the victim. One such story relates to a man in the town of Coblenz, who has been bewitched by a succubus, with whom he is forced to repeatedly fornicate, whilst in the presence of his wife. The story goes on to say that "after an incredible number of such bouts, the poor man at last sinks to the floor utterly exhausted." From mythology and fantasy, Lilith and the Lilin (Jewish) and Lilitu (Sumerian) are in redactive Christian fables (folktales not part of official Christian theology), considered succubi.

According to the Malleus Maleficarum, or "Witches' Hammer", published by the Catholic Church in 1487, Succubi would collect semen from the men they slept with, which incubi would then use to impregnate women thus explaining how demons could apparently sire children in spite of the traditional belief that demons were incapable of reproduction through generative or gestative means. Children so begotten were supposed to be those that were born deformed, or more susceptible to supernatural influences.

supernatural -or supranatural (Latin: super, supra "above" + natura "nature"). The supernatural pertains to entities, events or powers regarded as beyond nature, in that they cannot be explained by the currently understood laws of the natural world. Religious miracles are typical of such “supernatural” claims, as are spells and curses, divination, the belief that there is an afterlife for the dead, and innumerable others. Supernatural beliefs have existed in virtually all human cultures throughout recorded human history.

Supernatural themes are often associated with paranormal and occult ideas.

Many proponents believe that the past, present and future complexities and mysteries of the universe cannot be explained by naturalistic explanations alone and argue that it is reasonable to assume that a nonnatural entity or entities resolve the unexplained. By its own definition, science today is incapable of examining or testing for the existence of things which are untestable, illogical and delusional. Science concerns itself with what can be measured and seen through observation, logic, and scientific reason. Proponents of supernaturalism claim that their belief system is more flexible, which allows them more diversity in terms of intuition and epistemology (ways of understanding knowledge) with a disreguard for the scientific findings in psychiatry, abnormal psychology, and biology. William Dembski writes: "For the theist attempting to understand nature, God as creator is fundamental, the creation is derivative, and nature as the physical part of creation is still further downstream".

synchronicity - The experience of two or more events that are causally unrelated occurring together in a meaningful manner. To count as synchronicity, the events should be unlikely to occur together by chance.

The concept does not question, or compete with, the notion of causality. Instead, it maintains that just as events may be grouped by cause, they may also be grouped by their meaning. Since meaning is a complex mental construction, subject to conscious and subconscious influence, not every correlation in the grouping of events by meaning needs to have an explanation in terms of cause and effect.

telepathy - Telepathy (Greek , tele meaning "distant" and , patheia meaning "to be affected by") describes the purported transfer of information on thoughts or feelings between individuals by means other than the five classical senses (Psi). The term was coined in 1882 by the classical scholar Fredric W. H. Myers, a founder of the Society for Psychical Research, specifically to replace the earlier expression thought-transference. A person who is able to make use of telepathy is said to be able to read the minds of others. Telepathy, along with psychokinesis forms the main branches of parapsychological research, and many studies seeking to detect and understand telepathy have been done within the field.

Telepathy is a common theme in fiction and science fiction, with many superheroes and supervillains having telepathic abilities. Such abilities include both sensing the thoughts of others, and controlling the minds of other people. Transhumanists believe that technologically enabled telepathy, called "techlepathy", will be the inevitable future of humanity, and seek to develop practical, safe devices for directly connecting human nervous systems.

thermal vision - Thermal imaging cameras are excellent tools for night vision. They image emitted thermal radiation and do not need a source of illumination. They produce an image in the darkest of nights and can see through light fog, rain and smoke. Thermal imaging cameras make small temperature differences visible. Thermal imaging cameras are widely used to complement new or existing security networks. See Thermographic camera.

Image intensifier

The image intensifier is a vacuum-tube based device that converts visible light from an image so that a dimly lit scene can be viewed by a camera or the naked eye. While many believe the light is "amplified," it is not. When IR light strikes a charged photocathode plate, electrons are emitted through a vacuum tube that strike the microchannel plate that cause the image screen to illuminate with a picture in the same pattern as the IR light that strikes the photocathode, and is on a frequency that the human eye can see. This is much like a CRT television, but instead of color guns the photocathode does the emitting.

The image is said to become "intensified" because the output visible light is brighter than the incoming IR light, and this effect directly relates to the difference in passive and active night vision goggles. Currently, the most popular image intensifier is the drop-in ANVIS module, though many other models and sizes are available at the market.

A night vision device (NVD) is a device comprising an IR image intensifier tube in a rigid casing, commonly used by military forces. Lately night vision technology has become more widely available for civilian use, for example night vision filming and photography, night life observation, marine navigation and security. Some car manufacturers install portable night vision cameras on their vehicles.

A specific type of NVD, the night vision goggle (or NVG) is a night vision device with dual eyepieces; the device can utilize either one intensifier tube with the same image sent to both eyes, or a separate image intensifier tube for each eye. Night vision goggle combined with magnification lenses constitutes night vision binoculars. Other types include monocular night vision devices with only one eyepiece which may be mounted to firearms as night sights.

Thermographic cameras can be broadly divided into two types: those with cooled infrared image detectors and those with uncooled detectors.

Cooled infrared detectors

Cooled detectors are typically contained in a vacuum-sealed case or Dewar and cryogenically cooled. The cooling is necessary for the operation of the semiconductor materials used. Typical operating temperatures range from 4 K to just below room temperature, depending on the detector technology. Most modern cooled detectors operate in the 60 K to 100 K range, depending on type and performance level. Without cooling, these sensors (which detect and convert light in much the same way as common digital cameras, but are made of different materials) would be 'blinded' or flooded by their own radiation. The drawbacks of cooled infrared cameras are that they are expensive both to produce and to run. Cooling is power-hungry and time-consuming. The camera may need several minutes to cool down before it can begin working. The most commonly used cooling systems are rotary Stirling engine cryocoolers. Although the cooling apparatus is comparatively bulky and expensive, cooled infrared cameras provide superior image quality compared to uncooled ones. Additionally, the greater sensitivity of cooled cameras also allow the use of higher F-number lenses, making high performance long focal length lenses both smaller and cheaper for cooled detectors. An alternative to Stirling engine coolers is to use gases bottled at high pressure, nitrogen being a common choice. The pressurised gas is expanded via a micro-sized orifice and passed over a miniature heat exchanger resulting in regenerative cooling via the Joule–Thomson effect. For such systems the supply of pressurized gas is a logistical concern for field use.

Materials used for cooled infrared detection include photodetectors based on a wide range of narrow gap semiconductors including:

* indium antimonide (3-5 μm)
* indium arsenide
* mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) (1-2 μm, 3-5 μm, 8-12 μm)
* lead sulfide
* lead selenide

Infrared photodetectors can be created with structures of high band gap semiconductors such as in Quantum well infrared photodetectors.

A number of superconducting and non-superconducting cooled bolometer technologies exist.

In principle, superconducting tunneling junction devices could be used as infrared sensors because of their very narrow gap. Small arrays have been demonstrated. Their wide range use is difficult because their high sensitivity requires careful shielding from the background radiation.

Superconducting detectors offer extreme sensitivity, with some able to register individual photons. For example ESA's Superconducting camera (SCAM). However, they are not in regualr use outside of scientific research.

Uncooled infrared detectors

Uncooled thermal cameras use a sensor operating at ambient temperature, or a sensor stabilized at a temperature close to ambient using small temperature control elements. Modern uncooled detectors all use sensors that work by the change of resistance, voltage or current when heated by infrared radiation. These changes are then measured and compared to the values at the operating temperature of the sensor. Uncooled infrared sensors can be stabilized to an operating temperature to reduce image noise, but they are not cooled to low temperatures and do not require bulky, expensive cryogenic coolers. This makes infrared cameras smaller and less costly. However, their resolution and image quality tend to be lower than cooled detectors. This is due to difference in their fabrication processes, limited by currently available technology.

Uncooled detectors are mostly based on pyroelectric and ferroelectric materials [1] or microbolometer technology. The material are used to form pixels with highly temperature-dependent properties, which are thermally insulated from the environment and read electronically.

Ferroelectric detectors operate close to phase transition temperature of the sensor material; the pixel temperature is read as the highly temperature-dependent polarization charge. The achieved NETD of ferroelectric detectors with f/1 optics and 320x240 sensors is 70-80 mK. A possible sensor assembly consists of barium strontium titanate bump-bonded by polyimide thermally insulated connection.

Silicon microbolometers can reach NETD down to 20 mK. They consist of a thin film vanadium pentoxide sensing element suspended on silicon nitride bridge above the silicon-based scanning electronics. The electric resistance of the sensing element is measured once per frame.

Current improvements of uncooled focal plane arrays (UFPA) are focused primarily on higher sensitivity and pixel density.

Some of the materials used for the sensor arrays are eg.: [2]

* vanadium(V) oxide (metal insulator phase change material, for microbolometer arrays)
* lanthanum barium manganite (LBMO, metal insulator phase change material)
* amorphous silicon
* lead zirconate titanate (PZT)
* lanthanum doped lead zirconate titanate (PLZT)
* lead scandium tantalate (PST)
* lead lanthanum titanate (PLT)
* lead titanate (PT)
* lead zinc niobate (PZN)
* lead strontium titanate (PSrT)
* barium strontium titanate (BST)
* barium titanate (BT)
* antimony sulfoiodide (SbSI)
* polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF)

Thermographer Training & Certification

Aside from test equipment, training is the most important investment a company will make in an infrared inspection program. Advances in technology have provided infrared equipment that is user-friendly; however, infrared thermography is not a "simply point and shoot" technology. In addition to understanding the object or system being inspected, thermographers must also understand common error sources that can influence observed thermal data. Typically, infrared training courses should cover the topics of infrared theory, heat transfer concepts, equipment selection and operation, how to eliminate or overcome common error sources, and specific applications. Home and business owners who attempt thermal imaging themselves, in an effort the improve home energy efficiency, often misinterpret the images and may be prompted to spend on unnecessary improvements. Structural thermal imaging professionals can properly interpret readings and recommend cost-effective measures to improve building efficiency.

Certification is written proof of qualification, and a well trained thermographer will not only be trained, but properly certified. ISO 18436 lays down the criteria for certification. This allows for three levels of thermographers:

* A Level 1 qualified thermographer is "certified to perform industrial thermographic measurements and basic IR thermography according to established and recognized procedures ”.
* A Level 2 qualified thermographer is "qualified to perform and/or direct IR thermography according to established and recognized procedures."
* A Level 3 qualified thermographer is "qualified to perform and/or direct all types of thermographic measurements and analysis."

To conform to these requirements fully, a Level 1 must:

* Complete at least 40 hours training under an approved program and pass an exam with at least 75%.
* Work for at least 12 months as an active thermographer.
* Have at least 400 hours of cumulative experience in thermography.
* Submit proof of this.

A Level 2 must:

* Meet all the requirements of a Level 1 thermographer.
* Complete a further 40 hours training under an approved program and pass an exam with at least 75%.
* Work for at least 24 months as an active thermographer.
* Have at least 1200 hours of cumulative experience in thermography.
* Submit proof of this.

A Level 3 must:

* Meet all the requirements for a Level 2 thermographer.
* Complete a further 40 hours training under an approved program and pass an exam with at least 75%.
* Work for at least 48 months as an active thermographer.
* Have at least 1920 hours of cumulative experience in thermography.
* Submit proof of this.

It is important when hiring thermographers to check their Certification level, and to ensure their knowledge of your application is sufficient. It is also recommended that thermography companies have either their own Level 3 thermographer, or that they hire in the services of a Level 3.

In the USA ASNT certification is mainly used. Similarly, it follows three levels. It must be pointed out that under the ASNT system, certification is by the employer. This means that thermographers cannot bring their certification from job to job with them, and it also means that many one-person consultancy businesses may practice "self certification", which is a major downfall of this system.


Originally developed for military use during the Korean War, thermographic cameras have slowly migrated into other fields as varied as medicine and archeology. More recently, the lowering of prices have helped fuel the adoption of infrared viewing technology. Advanced optics and sophisticated software interfaces continue to enhance the versatility of IR cameras.

* Astronomy, in devices such as the Spitzer Space Telescope
* Night vision
* Firefighting operations
* Military & Police target detection & acquisition
* Law enforcement and anti-terrorism
* Predictive maintenance (early failure warning) on mechanical & electrical equipment
* Process monitoring
* Condition monitoring & surveillance
* Automotive applications
* Energy auditing of building insulation and detection of refrigerant leaks
* Roof inspection
* Auditing of acoustic insulation for sound reduction
* Masonry wall structural analysis
* Moisture detection in walls & roofs (and thus in turn often part of mold remediation)
* Chemical imaging
* Medical testing for diagnosis
* Nondestructive testing
* Quality control in production environments
* Research & development of new products
* Pollution effluent detection
* Locating unmarked graves
* Aerial archaeology
* Paranormal investigation
* Search and rescue operations
* Technical Surveillance Counter-Measures
* Quarantine monitoring of visitors to a country
* Flame detector


Some specification parameters of an infrared camera system are:

* Number of pixels
* Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD)
* Spectral band
* Sensor lifetime
* Minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD)
* Field of view
* Dynamic range
* Input power
* Mass and volume


trance - Trance denotes a variety of processes, techniques, modalities and states of mind, awareness and consciousness. Trance states may occur involuntarily and unbidden.

The term "trance" may be associated with meditation, magic, flow and prayer. It may also be related to the earlier generic term, altered states of consciousness, which is no longer used in "Consciousness Studies" discourse.

trance mediumship - Trance mediumship is often seen as a form of mental mediumship. Some mediums remain conscious during this communication period, while others go into a trance, wherein a spirit uses the medium's body to communicate. Trance mediumship is defined as a spirit taking over the body of the medium, sometimes to such a degree that the medium is unconscious. Part trance mediums are aware during the period of communication, while full trance mediums pass into an unconscious state in which their physical and mental processes are completely controlled by the spirit communicator.

In the 1860s and 1870s, trance mediums were very popular. Spiritualism had attracted adherents who had strong interests in social justice, and many trance mediums delivered passionate speeches on abolitionism, temperance, and women's suffrage.

Because the typical trance medium has no clear memory of the messages conveyed while in a trance, a medium of this type generally works with an assistant who writes down or otherwise records his or her words. A good example of this kind of relationship can be found in the early 20th century collaboration between the trance medium Mrs. Cecil M. Cook of the William T. Stead Memorial Center in Chicago (a religious body incorporated under the statutes of the State of Illinois) and the journalist Lloyd Kenyon Jones, a non-mediumistic Spiritualist who transcribed Cook's messages in shorthand and then edited them for publication in book and pamphlet form.

ultraviolet photography - Ultraviolet photography is a photographic process of recording images by using light from the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum only.

ight which is visible to the human eye covers the spectral region from about 400 to 750 nanometers. This is the radiation spectrum used in normal photography. The band of radiation that extends from about 1 nm to 400 nm is known as ultraviolet radiation. UV spectrographers divide this range into three bands:

* near UV (380–200 nm wavelength; abbrev. NUV)
* far UV (or vacuum UV) (200–10 nm; abbrev. FUV or VUV)
* extreme UV (1–31 nm; abbrev. EUV or XUV).

Only near UV is of interest for UV photography, for several reasons. Ordinary air is opaque to wavelengths below about 200 nm, and lens glass is opaque below about 180 nm. UV photographers subdivide the near UV into:

* Long wave UV that extends from 320 to 400 nm, also called UV-A,
* Medium wave UV that extends from 280 to 320 nm, also called UV-B,
* Short wave UV that extends from 200 to 280 nm, also called UV-C.

(These terms should not be confused with the parts of the radio spectrum with similar names.)

There are two ways to use UV radiation to take photographs - reflected ultraviolet and ultraviolet fluorescence photography. Reflected ultraviolet photography finds practical use in medicine, dermatology, criminology and theatrical applications. Sunlight is the most available free UV radiation source, but the quality and quantity of the radiation depends on atmospheric conditions. A bright and dry day is much richer in UV radiation and is preferable to a cloudy or rainy day. Another suitable source is electronic flash which can be used efficiently in combination with an aluminium reflector. Some flash units have a special UV absorbing glass over the flash tube, which must be removed before the exposure. It also helps to partly (90%) remove the gold coating of some flash tubes which otherwise suppresses UV. Special UV lamps known as "black light" fluorescence tubes are used for long wave ultraviolet photography. Most modern UV sources are based on a mercury arc sealed in a glass tube. By coating the tube internally with a suitable phosphor, it becomes an effective long wave UV source.

Many individuals are using hand held black lights to hunt for ghosts with and also have taken many strange ghost photos with them.

urban ghost legend - Local stories about ghosts, haunted locations and paranomal ativity being witnessed. An urban legend is a form of modern ghost or haunted folklore consisting of stories thought to be factual by those circulating them. The term is often used to mean something akin to an "apocryphal story." Like all folklore, urban legends are not necessarily false, but they are often distorted, exaggerated, or sensationalized over time.

Despite its name, a typical urban ghost legend does not necessarily originate in an urban setting. The term is simply used to differentiate modern legend from traditional folklore in preindustrial times. For this reason, sociologists and folklorists prefer the term "contemporary legend."

Haunted or just ghost legends are sometimes repeated in news stories and, in recent years, distributed by e-mail. People frequently allege that such tales happened to a "friend of a friend"—so often, in fact, that "friend of a friend," ("FOAF") has become a commonly used term when recounting this type of story.

Some urban ghost stories or legends have passed through the years with only minor changes to suit regional variations. One example is the story of a woman killed by spiders nesting in her elaborate hairdo. More recent legends tend to reflect modern circumstances, like the story of people ambushed, anesthetized, and waking up minus one kidney, which was surgically removed for transplantation.

vortex - Entrance to the spirit world. A vortex (pl. vortices) is a spinning, often turbulent, flow of ecto - matter or ectoplasam. Any spiral motion with closed streamlines is vortex flow. The motion of the fluid swirling rapidly around a center is called a vortex. The speed and rate of rotation of the fluid are greatest at the center, and decrease progressively with distance from the center. The Gates Of Guinee or the Seven Gates To Hell or supposed gatways or portals where spirits ghosts and demons can travel to our world freely.

virgula divina - or Baculus divinatorius, was a form of divining rod created from the forked branch of a hazel tree, used in the discovery of underground mines, springs, etc. The claimed method of using this Y-shaped branch involved the following: the user walks very slowly over the places where he suspects mines or springs may be; effluvia would then exhale from the metals or the water, impregnating the branch's wood, making it dip or incline. Such motion was supposed to indicate a discovery.

Many experiments alleged on its behalf, authors searched for the natural cause. The corpuscles, they said, rising from springs or minerals, entering the rod, force it to bow down, in order to render it parallel to the vertical lines that the effluvia created as they rose. In effect, the mineral or water particles were supposed to be emitted by means of subterraneous heat, or of the fermentations in the interior thereof. The virgula, being of a light, porous wood, gave an easy passage to those particles. The effluvia, driven forwards by those that follow them, and driven backwards by the atmosphere incumbent on them, are forced to enter the tiny regions between the fibres of the wood, and by that effort oblige it to incline, or dip down perpendicularly, to become parallel with the little columns which those vapors form in their rise.

An epigram by Samuel Sheppard, from Epigrams theological, philosophical, and romantick (1651) runs thus:

Virgula divina.
"Some Sorcerers do boast they have a Rod,
Gather'd with Vowes and Sacrifice,
And (borne about) will strangely nod
To hidden Treasure where it lies;
Mankind is (sure) that Rod divine,
For to the Wealthiest (ever) they incline."

womb ghost - Some people instinctively know their body is haunted by a real womb ghost. Still many others just don't. If in photos strange images as blurs or light ecto mist appear in your crotch or abominable region in more then one photo you just might be a candidate.

To find out a full investigation needs to be held with you considered as the haunted locations. Try passing an EMF Meter over your naked body. And recording EVP's by placing a Digital Voice recorder in your genital regions. You might just be surprised at the results.

Once you have established that your body is inhabited by a single or group of ghosts get a fellow paranormal investigator to study you and carry on the same investigation. Confirmation that your body is haunted by a Womb ghost is mandatory before any removal or changes in the state of your posses bowel or womb can take place.

Sometimes the Womb or a Bowel Ghost in men will leave your body when you are asleep. I suggest you try focusing a Digital Video recorder on your private areas you as you sleep.

Excerpts from Wikipedia.com From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Some very few individuals are lucky enough to sense ghost and in some cases see them hear them and even communicate with them directly. But for those of us who are not these lucky individuals we need the help of technology to give us the defining or cutting edge to do so. ALSO SEE: The 7 Steps To Begin Ghost Hunting


Ghost Hunters take a variety of tools with them on an investigation. And as we all know this equipment is not necessarily made just to discover the dead. Today a standard kit includes: "analog and digital video cameras with infrared night-vision capabilities; hand-held camcorders and stationary units that feed to a central command center; 35-mm film still cameras and digital cameras; Ultra compact sound level meter, analog and digital audio recorders; amplified or parabolic surveillance microphones; INFRARED THERMOMETER, atmospheric environment monitors; motion detectors; Geiger counters; GAUSSMETER, Air Ion Tester, a seismograph and a thermal-imaging camera." GPS, Cell Phones, EMF detectors, Ionic Devices, PC's Frank's Box and the newest Ovilus Spirit Communication Device, Dowsing rods, Pendulums, Magnifying glass, Compass, flash lights. ALSO SEE: Ghost Hunting Equipment Motions Detectors.

The most frequently bought equipment for a ghost hunting is an EMF detector, sometimes known as a TriField® meter. These devices detect fluctuations in magnetic, electric and radio/microwave energy levels. Some investigators have speculated that anomalous readings in those energy fields are a sign of a ghost.

Real Ghost Hunting Equipment

Ghost Hunting Equipment
Paranormal Research Equipment, Tools, Supplies, Clothing, Books, Magazines, DVD's, and much more.

Search for ghost hunting equipment HERE NOW!

Today many of the better Ghost tours Around the world provide the locations, equipment, and training in all areas of the field for you to begin your first steps into the world of the paranormal and real ghost hunting.

The Actual Truth about Research and Reference Paranormal Books

Many web sites bloggers and reputable writers will all tell you that paranormal research borders on the level of uncertainty. Just because a ghost story of an account is in print does not mean that a ghost or paranormal phenomena will occur to you the same way shape or form that it happened to someone else.

We all perceive things and react to things differently. And in this statement we should realize that ghost do the same as we do.



Books DVD's and our favorite television shows all show the standard fair of ghost emanations. From scratching pushing and touching individuals. But what about sexual encounters that too few are afraid to discuss. Check out Inter-Paranormal Relationships by Gina Lanier (Sex with Ghost).



Biting ghost, Divining Ghosts, Dowsing Rods And Pendulums, Top 10 ghost hunting tips for the Professional Paranormal Investigator. Also see: 10 Real Paranormal Investigation or Ghost Hunting Myths. And PLEASE ALSO SEE: HAUNTED AMERICA TOURS TOP 100 BESTSELLER'S LIST!



Check Out The Number # 1 Paranormal Book Of the Year! Otherworldly Affaires: Haunted Lovers, Phantom Spouses, and Sexual Molesters from the Shadow World BY Brad Steiger-- As Voted By You !

Check Out The Number # 1 Paranomal Book Of the Year! Otherworldly Affaires: Haunted Lovers, Phantom Spouses, and Sexual Molesters from the Shadow World BY Brad Steiger-- As Voted By you !

Ghost hunters use a variety of tools and techniques to investigate alleged paranormal activity. While there is no universal acceptance among ghost hunters of the following methodologies, a number of these are commonly utilized by ghost hunting groups.

Ghost Hunting Equipment

* Still and video photography - using infrared, digital, night vision, and even disposable film cameras to capture evidence of possible visual manifestations, such as orbs, mist, apparitions, and ectoplasm.

* EMF measurement - using electromagnetic field meters to detect possible unexplained magnetic fields which some attribute to the presence of ghosts and spirits, and at times used to spirit communication.

* Temperature measurement - using infrared, and thermal cameras, imaging video cameras, and/or hand-held infrared surface and ambient temperature sensors to detect changes in the environment, such as "cold spots", which some believe accompany paranormal activity.

* Digital and analog audio recording - to capture anomalous audio, including voices and sounds that may be interpreted as electronic voice phenomena, which some theorize are attempts at communication by paranormal entities.

* Geiger counter - to measure fluctuations in radiation which some believe will point to a disturbance in spirit energy.

* Ion Meters - to detect an excess of negative ions which some feel are associated with paranormal activity.

* Infrared and/or ultrasonic motion sensors - to detect possible anomalous movement within a given area, or to assist in creating a controlled environment where any human movement is detected.

* Air quality monitoring equipment - to assess the levels of gases such a carbon monoxide which are thought contribute to reports of paranormal activity. (Also see carbon monoxide poisoning).

* Infrasound monitoring equipment - to assess the level of sound vibrations below 20Hz which is thought to contribute to reports of paranormal activity.

* Dowsing rods - usually constructed of brass and bent into an L-shape, dowsing rods may be used by those who feel they help indicate the presence of ghosts and spirits.

* Psychics - trance mediums or "sensitive" individuals thought to have the ability to identify and make contact with spiritual entities. (This practice is considered controversial among groups that prefer a scientific approach)

* Demonologists, or Clergy Members - individuals who may say prayers, give blessings, or perform rituals for the purpose of cleansing a location of alleged ghosts, demons, poltergeists, or "negative energy". (Also considered controversial among groups that prefer a scientific approach)

Psychic Reese Smith calls a Ghost to appear!
Texcas Ghost Painting




Real Tried And True Ghost hunting Methods

* Lights-Out - According to ghost hunting enthusiast websites, many ghost hunters prefer to conduct their investigations during "peak" evening hours (midnight to 4 a.m.) when most paranormal activity is said to occur. Some also experiment in wavelengths on the fringe of human vision including red and ultraviolet light.


* Interviews - to collect testimony and stories from witnesses, often compiled into a computer database for further study. Some groups also research the history of a location in hopes of learning more about past events and individuals associated with the site.

Types of investigators and groups

Individuals engaged in ghost hunting and paranormal investigation proclaim varying motives for their activities.

* Some ghost hunters consider themselves hobbyists whose primary motivation is the excitement of the hunt and the thrill of possibly experiencing something supernatural. Many of these individuals enjoy spending significant time pursuing their hobby.

* Others consider themselves serious researchers who follow what they feel are scientific protocols and share documentation of their research with other groups in an effort to discover proof that ghosts exist. They often go about their pursuit in a prescribed manner in order to seek evidence of paranormal activity at a given location, or debunk "false positive" reports of hauntings. Many established groups fall into this category.

* Still others consider themselves to be providing a service, and focus their investigation on offering comfort and assistance to individuals who feel they are experiencing unexplained or paranormal activity at a home or other location. These investigators approach a location with the goal of alleviating the fear and discomfort of the occupants by listening to their experiences and providing advice and reassurance.

Some regional organizations, such as Ghost Research of Indiana, maintain that there are four basic classifications of ghost hunters.

* "Scientific", proclaiming to prove or disprove paranormal phenomena such as ghosts through the use of what they feel are scientific protocols.

* "Interactive", proclaiming to use a combination of "science" and practiced beliefs to form an answer about alleged phenomena. This group can include students of cryptozoology, UFO's, conspiracies, etc.

* "Chasers/Busters", avid believers out to prove by any means that a phenomenon does exist, even regardless of evidence.

* "Religious/Spiritual", believers who specialize in religious or occult beliefs and who feel that they oppose negative forces such as demons and evil presences.

Ghost hunting organizations say that most groups are a mix of several differing outlooks and typically advertise their services online but do not charge for investigations in hopes of finding new and interesting places to explore.

Ghost hunting is practiced by many paranormal investigation groups whose members sometimes promote their findings on the web as proof of hauntings. These findings are generally challenged by skeptics as wishful thinking, pareidolia or the product of scientifically unsound practices and beliefs. Critics question ghost-hunting's methodology, particularly its use of instrumentation, as there is no scientifically-proven link between the existence of ghosts and cold spots or electromagnetic fields. According to skeptical investigator Joe Nickell, "...the approach of the typical ghost hunter—a nonscientist using equipment for a purpose for which it was not made and has not been shown to be effective—is sheer pseudoscience." There is also concern that members of ghost-hunting groups may inflate their qualifications.

An offshoot of ghost hunting is the commercial ghost tour conducted by a local guide or tour operator who is often a member of a local ghost hunting or paranormal investigation group. Since both tour operator and 'haunted' site owners share profits of such enterprises (admissions typically range between $50 and $100 per person), some believe the 'haunted' claims are exaggerated or fabricated in order to increase attendance.


Paranormal Investigator Home schooling (also called Ghost Hunters home education), supernatural home learning or haunted home school– is the education of interested individuals who want to learn at home how to hunt, document and research real ghosts and paranormal activity. Many Paranormal investigators offer workshops public and private as professional ghost hunting tutors, rather than in a public or private locations to groups. Individual one on one training seems to be the new rage amongst the public. Ghost Hunting is no longer just a fad. It took two plumbers Who learned as they went along learning themsleves the in and outs. Just to bring the Paranormal science of Ghost Investigation to the fore front.

Homeschooled Ghost Hunting At It's Finest!

Paranormal investigation homeschooling in the modern sense is an alternative in developed countries to formal Paranormal education or training that does not exist openly. Please also see: "GHOST BUSTING IN THE 21ST CENTURY"

Great Ceasears ghost!

Many things that people interested in the subject need to learn is you just don't go out and declared a place is haunted without investigating it using a scientific method. A curriculum-free ghost Hunters philosophy of paranormal or haunted activity homeschooling may be what is making many ghost hunters not welcome any longer at certain locations. When untrained and un educated individuals go into a haunted location and cause a world of troubles.

Also read: Is It Really Paranormal? Questioning The Unknown Side Of Ghosts And Demonic Possession - With tales of being raped or beaten by ghosts, to stories of even a ghost giving a person a loan of some cash. I ask myself do these things really happen? -- Ginalanier.com



Mitchell Walker Stone

A paranormal investigator who researches Paranormal Investigators claims of ghosts and haunting's. With over 29 years in the field, Stone reopens haunted cases as well as investigates the new claims of paranormal writers world wide. Stone a firm believer in life after death and ghosts believes that to many cases today are tainted by bad documentation or inept techniques of poorly trained groups or individuals.

Stone states that ghosts and haunting's are often subjective only to the individuals that are so blessed to have had the event occur to them personally. But he does believe that some paranormal occurrences do affect the public but not to the degree that so many now a days claims to happen so frequently.



Have The Dead Spoken To You Lately?

Lisa Lee Harp Waugh The Great American Necromancer






Gina Lanier

Paranormal Investigator Gina Lanier

Gina Lanier has taken it upon herself to head up hauntedamericatours.com's GHOST HUNT RESPONSIBLY! Campaign for 2008. As Our featured spokesperson she is forging to gather her own and great info from many other leading paranormal Investigators in the field today.

Gina Lanier




Troy Taylor

Troy Taylor


Patti Starr

Certified Ghost Hunter

atti Starr, Certified Ghost Hunter, Ghost Chasers International, Inc.






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Welcome to my site. My name is John Zaffis. I have over 30 years of studying and investigating the paranormal. I have the resources and experience to help people in need and to spread the word of the reality of the supernatural. Within this site, you will find many sources of information to help you understand the realm of the supernatural.

PRSNE do not charge for conducting an investigation. They will ask for travel reimbursement, which can include gas, airline tickets, phone and tolls. They generally travel by car whenever possible to keep the costs to a minimum. Due to the reality that there are always those who can not financially reimburse this amount, the fee will vary on case by case basis. If you would like more information please feel free to call 1-203-375-6083