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Paranormal Ghost filled tales of voodoo - hoodoo and zombies, Bigfoot, El chupacabra, Banshee's, witches, ghost hunting Cemeteries, the undead, the dead, Cryptids, Vampires, ghouls , Monsters, Ufo's, Haunted Locations, Haunted Buildings, People and objects, Paranormal Phenomena and strange Urban Legends perpetrate a type of folklore or "Fakelore," endlessly circulated by word of mouth through generations, repeated in television news stories, Documentaries, Radio Talk shows, Newspapers, Blogs, magazine articles and distributed by e-mail.
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Taken from first-person accounts and historical documents, this book chronicles more than 300 examples of alien encounters, conspiracy theories, and the influence of extraterrestrials on human events throughout history. Investigating claims of visits from otherworldly creatures, aliens living among us, abductions of humans to alien spacecraft, and accounts of interstellar cooperation since the UFO crash in Roswell, this discussion of the theories and mysteries surrounding aliens is packed with thought-provoking stories and shocking revelations of alien involvement in the lives of Earthling
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Night vision is the ability to see in a dark environment. Whether by biological or technological means, night vision is made possible by a combination of two approaches: sufficient spectral range, and sufficient intensity range. Humans have poor night vision compared to many animals, in part because the human eye lacks a tapetum lucidum.
Certain countries (e.g. Hungary and other European Union members) regulate possession and or use of night-vision devices. Civilians are allowed to have Generation 1 and Gen1+ devices, but citizen's access to Gen 2 and up is outlawed by adopting International Traffic in Arms Regulations into national legislation. Generation 2 and higher devices are classified as military/law enforcement purpose and espionage tools.
New Zealand rescue helicopter services use several sets of 3rd-generation night vision goggles imported from the USA, and is required to restrict access to the equipment to comply with the strict regulations regarding their export.
Most U.S. states have no such bans. In California it is a misdemeanor to possess a device "designed for or adaptable to use on a firearm which, through the use of a projected infrared light source and electronic telescope, enables the operator thereof to visually determine and locate the presence of objects during the nighttime." There was an effort in 1995 to further expand restrictions to forbid night vision devices that didn't incorporate a light source, but it did not become law.
Not everyone can afford hi - tech equipment but thank God for theose people who just love to hack equipment for new purposes.
This is a video report made by CBS5 'Good Question' with Ken Bastinda, where he has a talk with James Munn from American Technologies Network Corp. During this conversation James Munn describes Night Vision Technologies and the principles of their work.
Night-useful spectral range techniques make the viewer sensitive to types of light that would be invisible to a human observer. Human vision is confined to a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum called visible light. Enhanced spectral range allows the viewer to take advantage of non-visible sources of electromagnetic radiation (such as near-infrared or ultraviolet radiation). Some animals can see well into the infrared and/or ultraviolet compared to humans.
Sufficient intensity range is simply the ability to see with very small quantities of light. Although the human visual system can, in theory, detect single photons under ideal conditions, the neurological noise filters limit sensitivity to a few tens of photons, even in ideal conditions.
Many animals have better night vision than humans do, the result of one or more differences in the morphology and anatomy of their eyes. These include having a larger eyeball, a larger lens, a larger optical aperture (the pupils may expand to the physical limit of the eyelids), more rods than cones (or rods exclusively) in the retina, a tapetum lucidum, and improved neurological filtering.
Enhanced intensity range is achieved via technological means through the use of an image intensifier, gain multiplication CCD, or other very low-noise and high-sensitivity array of photodetectors.
Night glasses are telescopes or binoculars with a large diameter objective. Large lenses can gather and concentrate light, thus intensifying light with purely optical means and enabling the user to see better in the dark than with naked eye alone. Often night glasses also have a fairly large exit pupil of 7 mm or more to let all gathered light into the user's eye. However, many people can't take advantage of this because of the limited dilation of the human pupil. To overcome this, soldiers were sometimes issued atropine eye drops to dilate pupils. Before the introduction of image intensifiers, night glasses were the only method of night vision, and thus were widely utilized, especially at sea. Second World War era night glasses usually had a lens diameter of 56 mm or more with magnification of seven or eight. Major drawbacks of night glasses are their large size and weight.
Thermal imaging cameras are excellent tools for night vision. They image emitted thermal radiation and do not need a source of illumination. They produce an image in the darkest of nights and can see through light fog, rain and smoke. Thermal imaging cameras make small temperature differences visible. Thermal imaging cameras are widely used to complement new or existing security networks. See Thermographic camera.
Using an IR thermometer, there are two ways to go about building a thermographic camera. The first uses a pan and tilt head. Scan lines are emulated, as a computer controls panning from left to right, taking a temperature sample from each step. Vertical resolution is accomplished by tilting. Another method uses a web cam attached to the thermometer. The thermometer’s laser pointer is captured with temperature annotations, as the computer records the field of view. We think the best outcome can be found with a combination of both methods. The video embedded below demonstrates the results. This would be a good addition to the Autonomous paintball sentry.
Check out this instructional appliance video that teaches you about thermal expansion valves (often abbreviated as TXV or TX valve). This ...more
A night vision device (NVD) is an optical instrument that allows images to be produced in levels of light approaching total darkness. They are most often used by the military and law enforcement agencies, but are available to civilian users. The term usually refers to a complete unit, including an image intensifier tube, a protective and generally water-resistant housing, and some type of mounting system. Many NVDs also include sacrificial lenses, IR illuminators, and telescopic lenses.
Night vision devices were first used in World War II, and came into wide use during the Vietnam War. The technology has evolved greatly since their introduction, leading to several "generations" of night vision equipment with performance increasing and price decreasing.
The United States Air Force is experimenting with Panoramic Night Vision Goggles (PNVGs) which double the user's field of view to around 95 degrees by using four 16 mm image intensifiers tubes, rather than the more standard two 18 mm tubes. They are in service with A-10 Thunderbolt II, MC-130 Combat Talon and AC-130U Spooky aircrews.
The PSQ-20, manufactured by ITT seeks to combine thermal imaging with image intensification, as does the Northrop Grumman Fused Multispectral Weapon Sight.
The classification below was initially introduced by the US manufacturers through the US government. European manufacturers do not abide by it.
The first night vision devices were introduced by the German army as early as 1939. The first devices were being developed by AEG starting in 1935. By the end of World War II, the German army had equipped approximately 50 Panther tanks, which saw combat on both the Eastern and Western Fronts. The "Vampir" man-portable system for infantry soldiers was being used with Sturmgewehr 44 assault rifles. Parallel development of night vision systems occured in the USA. The M1 and M3 infrared night sighting devices, also known as the "sniperscope" or "snooperscope", were introduced by the US Army in World War II, and also used in the Korean War, to assist snipers. They were active devices, using a large infrared light source to illuminate targets. Their image intensifier tubes function using an anode and an S-1 photocathode, made primarily of silver, caesium, and oxygen to accelerate the electrons.
Generation 1 (GEN I)
An M16A1 rifle fitted with the AN/PVS-2 Starlight scope.
First generation passive devices, introduced during the Vietnam War, were an adaptation of earlier active GEN 0 technology, and rely on ambient light instead of an infrared light source. Using an S-20 photocathode, their image intensifiers produce a light amplification of around 1000x, but are quite bulky and require moonlight to function properly.
Generation 2 (GEN II)
Second generation devices featured an improved image-intensifier tube utilizing micro-channel plate (MCP) with an S-25 photocathode, resulting in a much brighter image, especially around edges of the lens. This leads to increased illumination in low ambient light environments, such as moonless nights. Light amplification is around 20000x. Also improved were image resolution and reliability.
Later advancements in GEN II technology has brought tactical characteristics of GEN II devices into the range of GEN III ones, which has complicated the reasonable comparison.