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a hallucinogenic plant sometimes known as Hell's
Bells And The Zombie Drug
names include jimson weed, Hell's Bells, Devil's
weed, Devil's cucumber, thorn-apple (from the
spiny fruit), pricklyburr (similarly), and somewhat
paradoxically, both angel's trumpet and devil's
trumpet,(from their large trumpet-shaped flowers),
or as Nathaniel Hawthorne refers toit in the the
Scarlet Letter apple-Peru.
The drug causes paralysis
in all of the muscles of the body, which usually
leads to respiratory failure. But in some cases
the victim will maintain a faint heart beat, which
is only detectable by EKG. During the time, the
victim is completely aware (although without a
sense of touch, according to fugu (the dish made
from the deadly puffer fish) fanatics).
So what happens is that
someone is given this drug without their knowledge,
declared dead, presumably by doctors without modern
life support systems? This is happening in Haitian
villages. The victim is dug up, beaten, dragged
off to a plantation, and then fed a diet of Datura
stramonium. This plant is also known as “zombie
cucumber” or more commonly, at least in
the Northeast, Jimson Weed.
This weed contains tropane
alkaloids that can act as true hallucinogens,
detaching the consumer from reality. Its seeds
are brewed into a tea by people wanting to get
high here in the US, but it keeps the zombie slaves
in some kind of a trance. It keeps them docile
enough not to run away, and aware enough to do
Wade Davis's theory is that
culture and belief cause some Haitians to believe
that they are zombies after recovering from the
powder's effects. Some bokor also describe feeding
zombies a paste that includes Datura stramonium,
locally known as "zombie's cucumber."
Called jimson weed in the U.S., this plant causes
fever, hallucinations and amnesia, potentially
strengthening a victim's belief that a real transformation
has taken place.
By Gayle Raymond
There are certain herbs and plants traditionally
associated with witchcraft but which today
would NEVER be used or administered for consumption
because of their extremely poisonous nature.
Because, however, witches did once use them
in their magickal arts, they should rightfully
be mentioned in this series. Witches classify
those herbs and plants that produce death
as “baneful” or “fell.”
Modern herbalists will list them as poisonous
and will warn against using them or, in some
instances, even having contact with them.
Many other fears that are associated with
these plants are directly related to their
genuine magickal powers. They are not to be
toyed with or handled casually precisely because
they are so dangerous and powerful. None but
the most experienced and knowledgeable practitioner
of witchcraft or herbalist should have contact
with the plants and herbs listed in this article;
they are not to be used to produce a state
of intoxication (a “high”) or
as an escape from reality.
The plants discussed herein represent many
of the darkest products of Nature; they are
sure routes to the realm of sickness, inertia,
coma, and death, and anyone who procures such
plants or herbs without sufficient preparation
and education is putting him- or herself in
This is not an over-dramatization. Haunted
America Tours, the author, researchers, editors,
staff, and all associated websites (hereinafter
“we”) value the safety and health
of each and every one of you. As such, we
caution that any and all information contained
herein is for the purpose of information,
entertainment, and educational research ONLY.
The reader is strongly cautioned against procurement
or use of any of the natural materials and/or
by-products detailed below and that such procurement
and/or use is purely a matter of choice and
is done so at the reader’s OWN RISK,
in which instance we are held harmless.
There are several possible origins for the
word "zombie." These include jumbie,
the West Indian term for "ghost,"
and nzambi, the Kongo word meaning "spirit
of a dead person."
Zombies and Haitian Law
A law that seems to condemn zombie creation
went into effect in Haiti in 1835 [ref]. Article
246 of the Haitian Penal Code classifies the
administration of a substance that creates
a prolonged period of lethargy without causing
death as attempted murder. If the substance
causes the appearance of death and results
in the burial of the victim, the act is classified
Dr. Wade Davis has chronicled his studies
of Haitian zombies
in "The Serpent and the Rainbow"
and "The Passage of Darkness."
According to the tenets of Voodoo,
a dead person can be revived by a bokor or
Voodoo sorcerer. Zombies remain under the
control of the bokor since they have no will
of their own. "Zombi" is also another
name of the Voodoo snake god Damballah Wedo,
of Niger-Congo origin; it is akin to the Kongo
word nzambi, which means "god".
There also exists within the voudon tradition
the zombi astral which is a human soul that
is captured by a bokor and used to enhance
the bokor's power.
In 1937, while researching folklore in Haiti,
Zora Neale Hurston encountered the case of
Felicia Felix-Mentor, who had died and been
buried in 1907 at the age of 29. Hurston pursued
rumors that the affected persons were given
powerful drugs, but she was unable to locate
individuals willing to offer much information.
"What is more, if science ever gets
to the bottom of Voodoo in Haiti and Africa,
it will be found that some important medical
secrets, still unknown to medical science,
give it its power, rather than gestures of
Several decades later, Wade Davis, a Canadian
ethnobotanist, presented a pharmacological
case for zombies in two books, The Serpent
and the Rainbow (1985) and Passage of Darkness:
The Ethnobiology of the Haitian Zombie (1988).
Davis traveled to Haiti in 1982 and, as a
result of his investigations, claimed that
a living person can be turned into a zombie
by two special powders being entered into
the blood stream (usually via a wound). The
first, coup de poudre (French: 'powder strike'),
induced a 'death-like' state because of tetrodotoxin
(TTX), its key ingredient. Tetrodotoxin is
the same lethal toxin found in the Japanese
delicacy fugu, or pufferfish. At near-lethal
doses (LD50= 5-8µg/kg), it can leave
a person in a state of near-death for several
days, while the person continues to be conscious.
The second powder, composed of dissociatives
like datura, put the person in a zombie-like
state where they seem to have no will of their
own. Davis also popularized the story of Clairvius
Narcisse, who was claimed to have succumbed
to this practice. There remains considerable
skepticism about Davis's claims, although
there is wide belief among the Haitian people
of the existence of the "zombie drug".
The Voodoon religion being somewhat secretive
in its practices and codes, it can be very
difficult for a foreign scientist to validate
or invalidate such claims.
Others have discussed the contribution of
the victim's own belief system, possibly leading
to compliance with the attacker's will, causing
amnesia, catatonia, or other psychological
disorders, which are later misinterpreted
as a return from the dead. Scottish psychiatrist
R. D. Laing further highlighted the link between
social and cultural expectations and compulsion,
in the context of schizophrenia and other
mental illness, suggesting that schizogenesis
may account for some of the psychological
aspects of zombification.
The Serpent and the Rainbow is a 1988 American
horror film, directed by Wes Craven and starring
Bill Pullman. The film is very loosely based
on a non-fiction book by ethnobotanist Wade
Davis, dealing with his experiences in Haiti
as he investigates the story of Clairvius
Narcisse, allegedly poisoned, buried alive,
and given an herbal brew whose effects mimicked
Clairvius Narcisse was a Haitian man said
to have been turned into a living zombie with
the use of a combination of drugs. His case
attracted considerable interest and some scientific
investigation at the time.
According to reports, Clairvius was poisoned
with a mixture of various natural poisons
to simulate death. The instigator of the poisoning
was alleged to be his brother, with whom he
had quarreled over land. After his "death"
and subsequent burial on May 2, 1962, his
body was recovered and he was given a paste
made from datura which at certain doses has
a hallucinogenic effect and can cause memory
loss. His new 'master', a bokor (sorcerer),
then forced him, alongside many other zombie
slaves, to work on a sugar plantation until
the master's death in 1964. When the bokor
died, and regular doses of the hallucinogen
ceased, he eventually regained sanity (unlike
many others who had suffered brain damage
from being buried alive) and returned to his
family after some time, though only after
finding his brother had died.
Datura is a genus
of 12-15 species of vespertine flowering plants
belonging to the family Solanaceae. Their
exact natural distribution is uncertain, due
to extensive cultivation and naturalization
throughout the temperate and tropical regions
of the globe, but is most likely restricted
to the Americas, from the United States south
through Mexico (where the highest species
diversity occurs) to the mid-latitudes of
South America. Some species are reported by
some authorities to be native to China, but
this is not accepted by the Flora of China,
where the three species present are treated
as introductions from the Americas. It also
grows naturally throughout India and most
of Australia. According to the old ayurvedic
medicinal system (at least since 2000 BC)
in India, this plant has versatile uses in
- Hells Bells Lyrics
I'm rolling thunder,
I'm coming on like a hurricane
My lightning's flashing across the sky
You're only young but you're gonna die
I won't take no prisoners won't spare no lives
Nobody's putting up a fight
I got my bell I'm gonna take you to hell
I'm gonna get ya, satan get ya
Hells bells, you got me ringing
Hells bells, my temperature's high
I'll give you black
sensations up and down your spine
If you're into evil, you're a friend of mine
See the white light flashing as I split the
Cos if good's on the left then I'm sticking
to the right
I won't take no prisoners won't spare no lives
Nobody's puttin' up a fight
I got my bell I'm gonna take you to hell
I'm gonna get ya satan get ya
Hells bells, you got me ringing
Hells bells, my temperature's high
Hells bells, satan's
coming to you
Hells bells, he's ringing them now
Those hells bells, the temperature's high
Hells bells, across the sky
Hells bells, they're taking you down
Hells bells, they're dragging you down
Hells bells, gonna split the night
Hells bells, there's no way to fight
DATURA. Also called Angel’s Trumpet
and Jimson Weed. A poisonous plant producing
long, trumpet-shaped blooms that induce a
narcotic effect. When administered or ingested
in large doses, coma and death result. Extremely
is a woody-stalked, leafy herb growing up
to 2 meters. It produces spiney seed pods
and large white or purple trumpet-shaped flowers
that face upward. Most parts of the plant
contain atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine.
It has a long history of use both in S. America
and Europe and is known for causing delirious
states and poisonings in uninformed users.
Common names include jimson weed, Hell's Bells,
Devil's weed, Devil's cucumber, thorn-apple
(from the spiny fruit), pricklyburr (similarly),
and somewhat paradoxically, both angel's trumpet
and devil's trumpet,(from their large trumpet-shaped
flowers), or as Nathaniel Hawthorne refers
to it in the the Scarlet Letter apple-Peru.
The word Datura comes from Hindi dhatura (thorn
apple); record of this name dates back only
to 1662 (OED). The Hindi derives this word
from Sanskrit vedic literature that dates
to long before 2000 BC.
They are large, vigorous
annual plants or short-lived perennial plants,
growing to 1-3 m tall. The leaves are alternate,
10-20 cm long and 5-18 cm broad, with a lobed
or toothed margin. The flowers are erect or
spreading (not pendulous), trumpet-shaped,
5-20 cm long and 4-12 cm broad at the mouth;
color varies from white to yellow, pink, and
pale purple. The fruit is a spiny capsule
4-10 cm long and 2-6 cm broad, splitting open
when ripe to release the numerous seeds.
Datura species are
used as food plants by the larvae of some
Lepidoptera species including Hypercompe indecisa.
Datura discolor - Desert Thorn-apple
Datura inoxia or Datura innoxia - Angel's
Datura leichhardtii (syn. D. pruinosa) - Leichhardt's
Datura quercifolia - Oak-leaf Thorn-apple
Datura suaveolens - Known in Costa Rica as
"Reina de la noche" (Night's Queen)
Datura stramonium (syn. D. inermis) - Jimsonweed,
Datura wrightii - Sacred datura, Sacred Thorn-apple
Some species formerly included in Datura are
now classified in the separate genus Brugmansia;
this genus differs in being woody, making
shrubs or small trees, and in having pendulous
flowers. Other related genera include Hyoscyamus
and Atropa. its also used by sadhus as prayer
flower for lord shiva
is also called jimsonweed. This name comes
from the town of Jamestown, Virginia. Various
versions of the story exist, but in the most
common version, British soldiers sent to quell
Bacon's Rebellion of 1676 were accidentally
served this unfamiliar plant as food, causing
many to be incapacitated for 11 days. Datura
wrightii, also called sacred datura or western
jimsonweed, has similar effects.
a 16th century biography of the saint Caitanya
who was known for his fervent religious ecstasies,
describes an incident (2.18.165, 183) where
Muslim soldiers, unable to comprehend his
state of trance, apprehend four of his companions
on suspicion of their poisoning him with dhutura
with an aim to loot his possessions. Upon
regaining consciousness, Caitanya attributes
his trance episode to epilepsy.
In Eurasia references to the uses and
sacred status of Datura (predominantly
Datura metel) can be found from the
Caspian Sea to China. Especially in
India it found a highly revered place
of honor as one of Shiva's sacred plants.
According to the vamana purana it grew
out of Shiva's chest and the garuda
purana gives instructions for ritual
offerings of Datura flowers, which should
be made to Yogashwara (=Shiva) on the
13th day of the waxing Moon in January.
Yogis smoke the leaves and seeds mixed
with Ganja, another plant sacred to
Shiva. The combination of the two
plants alludes to the dual (androgynous)
nature of the God. Datura represents
the male polarity whilst Ganja symbolizes
the feminine aspect. The chilum is
lit with two sticks, further signifying
the duality. As the God of Flames
Shiva transforms the inherent powers
of his sacred plants and invokes the
cosmic sexual energy of the universe.
The Kundalini snake, hitherto fast
asleep in the nether regions of the
base chakra is awakened and winds
its way up through the chakras until
the yogi's consciousness is filled
with cosmic consciousness in which
all opposites merge into oneness.
In accordance with this symbolism
Datura flowers in particular held
a widespread reputation as a powerful
a somewhat less charming ritual practice
was associated with Datura intoxication.
The Thugs, or Thuggees, a particularly
fanatical sect of Kali-worshippers
also held Datura (Datura fastuosa
var. alba) sacred. According to their
belief Kali, the dark Goddess of death
and fertility demanded at least one
male sacrifice per day. A Datura preparation
known as Dhƒt, was used both
to bestow a fearless frenzy in the
worshipers as they attacked their
victims (usually travellers), and
to drug these prior to the sacrifice.
known by the common names jimson weed, gypsum
weed, ditch weed, stink weed, loco weed,Korean
morning glory, Jamestown weed, thorn apple,
angel's trumpet, devil's trumpet, devil's
snare, devil's seed, mad hatter, crazy tea,
malpitte, the Devil's balls and, along with
datura metel, zombie cucumber is a common
weed in the Nightshade Family. It contains
tropane alkaloids that are sometimes used
as a hallucinogen. The active ingredients
are atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine
which are classified as deliriants, or anticholinergics.
Due to extremely high risk of overdose, many
deaths and hospitalizations are reported from
also called dhatura is an erect annual plant,
on average 30 to 150 cm (1-5 feet) tall with
erect, forking and purple stems. The leaves
are large, 7 to 20 cm (3-8 in) long and have
irregular teeth similar to those of oak leaves.
The flowers are one of the most distinctive
characteristics of Datura stramonium: they
are trumpet-shaped, white to purple, and 2-7
in. (5-12.5 cm) long. The flowers, with the
same fragrance as Mirabilis jalapa, open and
close at irregular intervals during the evening,
earning the plant the nickname moonflower.
The fruit are walnut-sized, egg-shaped, and
covered in prickles, they split into four
chambers, each with a few kidney-shaped seeds.
All parts of the plant emit a foul odor when
crushed or bruised.
is native to either India or Central America.
It was used as a mystical sacrament in both
possible places of origin. The Native Americans
have used this plant in sacred ceremonies.
In some tribes datura was involved in the
ceremonies of manhood. The sadhus of Hinduism
also used datura as a spiritual tool, smoking
it with cannabis in their traditional chillums.
In the United States
it is called jimson weed, gypsum weed, angel
trumpet, hells bells or more rarely Jamestown
weed; it got this name from the town of Jamestown,
Virginia, where British soldiers were secretly
or accidentally drugged with it, while attempting
to suppress Bacon's Rebellion. They spent
several days chasing feathers, making monkey
faces, generally acting like lunatics, and
indeed failed at their mission:
Some of the soldiers
sent thither to quell the rebellion of Bacon
(1676); and some of them ate plentifully of
it, the effect of which was a very pleasant
comedy, for they turned natural fools upon
it for several days: one would blow up a feather
in the air; another would dart straws at it
with much fury; and another, stark naked,
was sitting up in a corner like a monkey,
grinning and making mows [grimaces] at them;
a fourth would fondly kiss and paw his companions,
and sneer in their faces with a countenance
more antic than any in a Dutch droll.
In this frantic condition
they were confined, lest they should, in their
folly, destroy themselves- though it was observed
that all their actions were full of innocence
and good nature. Indeed, they were not very
cleanly; for they would have wallowed in their
own excrements, if they had not been prevented.
A thousand such simple tricks they played,
and after 11 days returned themselves again,
not remembering anything that had passed.
– Robert Beverly, The History and Present
State of Virginia, 1705
There was a time when
stramonium, a drug obtained from the leaves
and seeds of Datura stramonium, was used medicinally
(Herbalgram). The alkaloid was known as daturine.
From the seeds was made extractum stramonii.
The tinctura stramonii was made from the leaves.
Stramonium was used to relax the smooth muscle
of the bronchial tubes, and thus it was used
to treat an asthmatic's bronchial spasm. Cigarettes
were made of stramonium leaves which could
be smoked; or the tincture was taken internally.
Frequently the leaves were powdered together
with equal quantities of the leaves of Cannabis
and Lobelia mixed with potassium nitrate,
and were burned in an open dish. The preparation
was reported to give off dense fumes which
afforded great relief to the asthmatic paroxysm.
Around the turn of the century numerous patent
"cures" for asthma contained these
ingredients in varying proportions. Daturine
was also used to treat acute mania as hyoscyamine
was said to produce sleep. Because of the
dangers of tropane poisoning, datura is not
used medicinally today, and the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) has determined it to
be unfit for human consumption. However, atropine,
scopolamine and hyoscyamine are FDA approved
drugs that are used everyday for a variety
The Zombie Drug is
the term that has come to denote scopolamine.
The zombie drug gets its name for its ability
to cause retrograde amnesia in victims of
rape, theft, and crime. The zombie drug is
thought to inhibit its victim's ability to
voice free will.
Also known as Scopolamine
Ultimate truth serum
Turns victims into "zombies"
Burundanga has been
around since before the discovery of the New
World. Its active ingredient, scopolamine,
is found in a plant from the nightshade family
known as borrachera (drunken binge), which
grows in the high Andes.
from Wall Street Journal Article, July 3,
Dateline Bogota, Colombia
If you thought cocaine was bad news, wait
until you hear about Burandanga.
Burundanga is a kind of voodoo powder obtained
from a Colombian local
plant of the nightshade family, a shrub called
barrachera, or "drunken
binge". Used for hundreds of years by
Natie Americans in religious ceremonies,
the powder when ingested causes victims to
lose their will and memory, sometimes
for days. (This drug is also known as Nightshade
or "CIA drugs).
When refined the powder yields scopolamine,
a well-know drug with
legitimate uses as a sedative and to combat
motion sickness. (Mengele of
Nazi fame also had and experimented with scopolamine
as a truth serum).
But in Colombia, the drug's most avid fans
are street criminals. Crooks
mix the powder with sedatives and feed the
Burundanga cocktail to unsuspecting
victims whom they then proceed to rob - or
Doctors here estimate
that Colombian hustlers slip the odorless,
colorless and soluble Burundanga (pronounced
boor-oon-DAN-ga) in food or
drink to about 500 unwitting victims in the
city each month. About half of
the city's total emergency room admissions
for poison are Burundanga
"It is a very
serious problem," says Fernando Botero,
minister. Adds Camilo Uribe, the doctor who
runs the city's formost toxicology
clinic and who is in charge of toxicology
for all of Bogota's public hospitals.
It seems that everyone
in Bogota knows someone who has been victimized
the drug, Burundanguiado, as the say in Spanish.
In one common scenario, a
person will be offered a soda or drink laced
with the substance. The next
the person remembers is waking up miles away,
extremely groggy and with no
memory of what happened. People soon discover
that they have handed over
jewelry, money, car keys, and sometimes have
even made multiple bank with-
drawals for the benefit of their assailants.
Because Burundanga is often
given at seedy bars or houses of prostitution,
many victims are reluctant
to come forward.
"The victim can't
say no; he has no will and becomes very open
suggestion. It's like CHEMICAL HYPNOTISM,"
says Dr. Uribe. "From the
moment it's given, the victim remembers absolutely
nothing of what happened."
He adds, "From a criminal point of view,
it's got a lot of advantages".
Architect David Neneses says he was Burundanguiado
twice in one week
last December. Mr. Meneses' first encounter
with Burundanga took place on a
Friday night when he stopped at a pharmacy
to buy antacid. Two well-dressed
men approached hes car. Teh last thing Mr.
Menses remembers is one of the
men unwrapping a piece of candy. "I woke
up the next day at noon at my
house." he says. He had no memory of
how he got there, though the doorman in
his building told Mr. Menseses he saw him
com in at 7 a.m. looking nervous
On Monday, Mr. Meneses
checked with his bank, where he was told that
his ATM card made 13 withdrawals for a total
of about $700 on that lost
Friday night. Concerned that he might have
unwittingly been involved in
criminal activity, or that his car had been
used, Mr. Meneses went to the
local prosecutors office where he made a sworn
statement saying he wasn't
respon- sible for anything that had happened
during the hours he was under
the influence of the drug.
Three days later,
the luckless Mr. Meneses noticed that he had
tire. Two men on the street approached him
and offered to change it. "I
remember they gave me something to drink,
which I can't imagine why I
drank." he says. Police found him asleep
in his car six hours later. He had
been robbed of his radio and about $125.
These days, Mr. Meneses
is careful to drive with the windows rolled
He doesn't venture out much at night anymore.
"Burundanga is a very dangerous
weapon in the hands of the underworld"
Not all cases of Burundanga involve theft
or robbery. Sometimes victims
have been used as mules to carry cocaine,
says Dr. Uribe's brother Manuel, a
neurologist practicing at the clinic. In one
incident, says Manuel Uribe, a
well-known Colombian diplomat disappered shortly
after leaving a function in
Bogota, only to reappear in Chile under arrest
for cocaine smuggling. Medical
tests showed he had been under the influence
of Burundanga, and no charges
Camilo Uribe said that in a minority of cases
Burundanga is used to lure
young women who are then abused sexually.
When they are found days later,
they have no memory of what has happened to
them. "You see that a lot with
university coeds." he says.
Camilo Uribe is often called by companies
and embassies to talk about the
perils of Burundanga. One diplomatic mission
that takes the problem very
seriously is the U.S. Embassy. Its orientation
manual warns freshman
diplomats never to visit bars or nightclubs
alone. "Druggings in group
situations are far less common" the manual
says, adding that food and drinks
should never be left unattended. At the Colombian
unit of Dow Chemical Co.
(now there's an organization that knows about
drugs!) security officials
periodically tell employees how to avoid getting
Burundanguiado "There have
been many cases." says Oswaldo Parra,
the company's legal officer. "It's a
very common practice in Colombia."
Curiosly, just next door in Ecuador, where
the plant is grown commercially
for medical purposes, its criminal use is
unknown. Instead, the plant is the
subject of poetry and myth. If one sleeps
under the plant in Ecuador, he
will be able to tell the future, legends say.
Here, however, Pedro Gomez Silva, a forensic
chemical expert, tells police
cadets that for fear of Burundanga, Colombians
shouldn't accept food, drinks
or cigarettes from strangers, nor buy them
from street vendors.
What's more, to be on the safe side, Colombians
shouldn't help when asked
for directions or the time of day. And forget
sidewalk romances. The way things
go with Burundanga, flirting with a stranger
could lead to a really lost
NOTE. THIS SUBSTANCE
CAN BE GIVEN BY LIQUID, CIGARETTE OR INHALANT.
TASTELESS AND ODERLESS AND CAN GIVEN WITH
A DRUG THAT MAKES THE VICTIM
TEMPORARILY BLIIND. THE VICTIM UNDER THIS
DRUG, WITH AN EXPERIENCED OPERATOR, WILL TELL
THE TRUTH TO ANY QUESTION ASKED. THE VICTIM
MAY HAVE NO MEMORY OF THE EVENT, OR MAY REMEMBER
THE EVENT AS A DREAM. MEMORIES OF EVENTS WHILE
ON THIS DRUG MAY COME INTO CONCIOUSNESS MANY
YEARS LATER. THE CIA/FBI/NSA AND MOST POLICE
DEPARTMENTS KNOW ABOUT THESE DRUGS. THIS DRUG
IS USED BY SECURITY FORCES TO "MAKE PEOPLE
FORGET" OTHER EVENTS. VICTIMS OF THIS
DRUG OFTEN REPORT DISTORTED VISION, ESPECIALLY
THINGS BEING MADE WIDE AND SMALL, OR THE GIVER'S
HEAD STARTING TO STRETCH.
^ a b http://science.howstuffworks.com/zombie.htm
^ a b http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/zombie
^ Gallaher, Tim (1997). Zora Neale Hurston,
^ Michael Page and Robert Ingpen : Encyclopedia
of Things That Never Were: Creatures, Places,
and People, 1987. ISBN 0-14-010008-3
^ Kovacs, Maureen Gallery, transl. with intro.
(1985,1989). The Epic of Gilgamesh. Stanford
University Press: Stanford, California. ISBN
0-8047-1711-7. Glossary, Appendices, Appendix
(Chapter XII=Tablet XII). A line-by-line translation
^ Chalmers, David. 1995. "Facing Up to
the Problem of Consciousness", Journal
of Consciousness Studies, vol. 2, no. 3, pp.
^ Shopping Spree of the Dead!. Retrieved on
^ Donaldson, Bob, and Roberts, Larry. A walk
with zombies, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. October
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